Pituitary metastasis: a rare condition

in Endocrine Connections

Tumor metastasis to the pituitary gland is a rare, not well-documented and life-threatening condition associated with a shortened life span. A better understanding of its clinical manifestations could lead to earlier diagnosis, appropriate therapy and potentially improving quality of life. Therefore, we retrospectively studied the charts of patients with pituitary metastases who were treated at the City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte, CA) from 1984 to 2018. We reviewed and analyzed tumor origin, primary pituitary clinical manifestation, duration between primary tumor diagnosis and pituitary metastasis, type of treatment and patient survival. A total of 11 patients were identified with a mean age of 59.2 years and median survival following the diagnosis of metastasis of 10 months. Breast cancer and lymphoma were the most common primary origins in these cases, and diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism were the most common clinical manifestations of their metastasis. We also compared our results with reports in the literature published between 1957 and 2018. A total 289 patients with pituitary metastasis have been reported in the literature. Breast cancer was the most frequent primary origin of the metastasis, and visual symptoms were the most common primary manifestation. The posterior part of the pituitary is more susceptible than the anterior to metastasis. Pituitary metastasis may occur as a consequence of successful primary tumor treatment prolonging the chance of seeding. Future studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanism of metastasis to the pituitary.

Abstract

Tumor metastasis to the pituitary gland is a rare, not well-documented and life-threatening condition associated with a shortened life span. A better understanding of its clinical manifestations could lead to earlier diagnosis, appropriate therapy and potentially improving quality of life. Therefore, we retrospectively studied the charts of patients with pituitary metastases who were treated at the City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte, CA) from 1984 to 2018. We reviewed and analyzed tumor origin, primary pituitary clinical manifestation, duration between primary tumor diagnosis and pituitary metastasis, type of treatment and patient survival. A total of 11 patients were identified with a mean age of 59.2 years and median survival following the diagnosis of metastasis of 10 months. Breast cancer and lymphoma were the most common primary origins in these cases, and diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism were the most common clinical manifestations of their metastasis. We also compared our results with reports in the literature published between 1957 and 2018. A total 289 patients with pituitary metastasis have been reported in the literature. Breast cancer was the most frequent primary origin of the metastasis, and visual symptoms were the most common primary manifestation. The posterior part of the pituitary is more susceptible than the anterior to metastasis. Pituitary metastasis may occur as a consequence of successful primary tumor treatment prolonging the chance of seeding. Future studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanism of metastasis to the pituitary.

Introduction

Pituitary metastasis (Pit Met) is a rare condition first reported for the by Ludwig Benjamin in 1857 and subsequently by Harvey Cushing in 1913 (1). Detection of Pit Met is difficult, as they are easily missed in imaging studies and patients are frequently asymptomatic. Previous studies have reported that only 7% of Pit Mets are symptomatic (2, 3). There are reports of involvement of the anterior and posterior part of the pituitary gland (3). In contrast to pituitary adenomas, metastatic tumors, when detected, are more likely to be located in the posterior pituitary. This likely accounts for diabetes insipidus (DI) being more common in patients with Pit Met than patients with other pituitary pathology.

The exact reasons underlying the predilection of metastasis for the posterior pituitary is unknown. Reports of Pit Met have largely been found in autopsies series performed for reasons unrelated to the presence of pituitary pathology (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). In this report, we present a case series of Pit Met from City of Hope National Medical Center, recorded between 1984 and 2018, as well as a review of the relevant literature from 1957 to present.

Materials and methods

Data collection

Chart review was performed on all of the patients diagnosed with pituitary metastasis at City of Hope Hospital from 1984 to 2018. Key words employed in the electronic record search included ‘pituitary’, ‘metastasis’ and ‘brain metastasis.’ Pituitary adenomas and other primary pituitary tumors (germinoma, chordoma, meningioma, etc.) were excluded. Information abstracted from patient records included tumor origin, primary pituitary clinical presentation, age, sex, type of treatment, presence of other metastases and survival. Also, analysis was made of the duration between primary tumor diagnosis and pituitary metastasis. The study was approved by the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope Ethics Committee and consent was obtained from all patients.

Literature review

A query of PubMed spanning the years 1957 until 2018 was performed using the key words ‘pituitary metastasis’ and ‘hypophyseal metastasis’ and returned 156 manuscripts, 21 of which involved analysis of animals, leaving 135. Four references included in the analysis were identified from the bibliographies of the articles returned via the PubMed search and, excluding any cases from City of Hope left 139 original publications.

Statistical analysis

Results were summarized using descriptive statistics (mean, median and percentages, etc.) by a biostatistician using SPSS 16.0 for Windows.

Results

Case series at City of Hope

We identified a total of 11 patients (6 male) with a mean age of 59.2 years (range: 43–76) excluding one adult patient for whom the age was not recorded. There were no pediatric patients with pituitary metastasis. The most common tumors of origins were breast cancer (2 cases) and lymphoma (2 cases). The most common primary clinical presentations were panhypopituitarism (3 cases) and DI (3 cases). Visual symptoms were also noted in two patients. In keeping with the natural history of these lesions, several patients did not have any pituitary-related clinical manifestations. Four patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS); four patients with Pit Met were discovered by biopsy and three were identified at autopsy. At the time of analysis, five patients had died (mean time from diagnosis of Pit Met 2.7 months). The median survival after diagnosis of Pit Met was 10 months. Ten cases had additional known metastases. All case data are presented in Table 1.

Table 1

Summary of pituitary metastasis cases at City of Hope Hospital from 1984 to 2018.

SubjectOriginAgeSexPrimary pituitary manifestationOther metastasesPit Met DX after primary tumor (years)TXSurvival after Pit Met DX (months)Alive
Solid organ cancers
 1Breast (HER2−)49FDINo5TSS8Yes
 2Breast (HER2+)54FPanhypopituitarismBone5Chemo5Yes
 3Testicular germ cell tumor52MPanhypothyroidismLungSame timeRT4No
 4Lung carcinoid43MDILiver, bone11TSS10Yes
 5Colon adenocarcinoma61MNoneTemporal-parietal1TSS3No
 6Yolk sacNAMNALiverNANANANo
 7Papillary thyroid65FNoneIntestinalSame timeNo1No
Hematologic cancers
 8Hodgkin lymphoma65MNonePapillary, thyroid, lungSame timeNANANo
 9Diffuse large B cell lymphoma72FVisual involvement, panhypothyroidismHypothalamic5 monthsChemo36Yes
 10Eosinophilic granuloma, dendritic cell tumor55MDIBoneSame timeRT432Yes
 11Multiple myeloma76FVisual involvementThyroidSame timeTSS and RT84Yes

DI, diabetes insipidus; DX, diagnosis; F, female; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; M, male; NA, not available; Pit Met, pituitary metastasis; RT, radiation therapy; TSS, transsphenoidal surgery; TX, treatment.

Literature review

According to our search, a total of 289 pituitary metastases have been reported from 1957 to 2018. The mean age of patients was 56.6 years, and 52.9% were female. The frequencies of primary sites are summarized in Fig. 1 (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140). In addition, the frequencies of primary symptoms are reported in Table 2, visual involvement was the most common. The median survival time after diagnosis of Pit Met was 10 months. A total of 179 (61.9%) Pit Met patients underwent surgery, and 175 (60.5%) of them had radiotherapy.

Figure 1
Figure 1

Frequencies of the pituitary metastasis primary sites reported in the literature from 1957 to 2018.

Citation: Endocrine Connections 7, 10; 10.1530/EC-18-0338

Table 2

Frequencies of primary symptoms of pituitary metastasis reported in the literature from 1957 to 2018.

Primary pituitary symptomNumber of casesPercentage of cases (%)
Visual involvement14148.8
Panhypopituitarism10937.7
Diabetes insipidus11138.4
Headache10235.3

Discussion

Based on our literature reviewing, breast cancer was the most frequent primary origin of the metastasis, and visual involvement was the most common primary manifestation. The posterior part of the pituitary is more susceptible than the anterior to metastasis.

Between 0.14 and 3.6% of all intracranial metastases are in the pituitary (89, 141). It has been estimated that 1.8% of all surgically resected pituitary masses are metastases (6). The incidence of Pit Met is independent of gender, and most patients were in sixth decades of life. Although diagnostic methods and treatment options for patients with cancers have improved, at the same time the incidence of Pit Met has increased (142). Clinical symptoms due to the metastasis manifest in 2.5–18.2% of patients with Pit Met (142).

Symptoms vary from nonspecific manifestation, such as fatigue and headache, to more specific symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. The frequent absence or nonspecific nature of Pit Met symptoms makes diagnosis difficult delaying detection of early-stage disease. In our study, 60% of cases exhibited pituitary dysfunction with clinical manifestation. The most common clinical manifestations were DI and panhypopituitarism (27.7% each). In primary pituitary adenoma, 1% of patients present with DI, so it has been suggested that patients presenting with DI undergo evaluation for pituitary metastasis via MRI prior to evaluation of the primary tumor source (143). Based on review of the literature, visual problems are the most common first manifestation of Pit Met (Table 2). The difference between our institutional disease rates vs literature-derived rates might be related to late diagnosis of Pit Met and rapid growth of tumors in patients with end-stage cancer.

Patients with breast cancer had Pit Met 9.3 times more frequently than other types of cancers (144, 145). Consistent with this finding, review of the literature showed that breast cancer was the most common source of Pit Met (Fig. 1). In the City of Hope series contained herein, breast cancer and lymphoma were equally the most common primary metastasis source. It is hypothesized that elevated hormone levels in the pituitary gland, especially prolactin, may attract metastatic cells (85). Recent studies have found that anti-HER-2 treatment can facilitate Pit Met (145, 146, 147). In contrast, one of our patients with HER2-positive breast cancer developed Pit Met before receiving anti-HER2 treatment. Future studies are needed to understand the role of the anti-HER2 treatment in the development of Pit Met.

Review of the literature revealed lung cancer to be the second most common source of Pit Met. The lung cancers, being mostly asymptomatic, were discovered in the late stages of disease. In another study, Pit Mets were the first metastatic manifestation of the primary tumor in 34.5% of cases and lung cancers were the source of Pit Mets in 50% (11). Thyroid cancer is the third most common source of Pit Met. Occasionally, papillary thyroid cancer is diagnosed after finding Pit Mets, while the first symptoms in patients with papillary thyroid cancer may be visual (123).

The frequency of renal cell carcinoma is low worldwide (148, 149), but it is the fourth most common primary site of Pit Met. This raises the question of possible molecular interactions between renal cell carcinoma and Pit Met including pituitary-originating homing signals or specific characteristics of renal cancers that favor pituitary metastasis. Based on data from the literature, the incidence of Pit Met arising from cancers of the cervix, pancreas, nasal membranes or germinomas is low. However, the rarity of Pit Met suggests a random nature to these, rather pituitary signals attracting the cancer.

When tumors do metastasize, the posterior part of the pituitary is more susceptible than the anterior. The incidence of metastatic involvement of the anterior pituitary varies from 23.7 to 40% (142). That most Pit Mets locate to the posterior pituitary may be, in part, due to the fact that this region of the gland is supplied by the systemic circulation, whereas the anterior pituitary receives blood via the hypophyseal portal system (149). Another explanation might be the difference in sizes of these areas. The posterior part of the gland is smaller than the anterior, suggesting that the same volume of metastasis in the posterior region will result in symptomology sooner. Also, involvement and massive destruction of supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in hypothalamus, where the synthesis of neurohypophysis hormones take place, by the extension of an infiltrating tumor, can cause DI. In addition, tumor infiltrating, the site of tracks convergence originating from hypothalamic nuclei, at the base of hypothalamus at the origin pituitary stalk, causes DI (150, 151, 152).

As there is no standardization to the treatment of Pit Mets, a number of approaches have been employed including surgical resection, radiosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonotherapy. Surgery is used for confirming the diagnosis and decreasing symptoms. Hypervascularization of the tumor and invasion of the cavernous sinus and other nearby organs make total resection difficult (153). All therapies, including radiation therapy, surgical resection and intrathecal chemotherapy may cause panhypopituitarism. In our literature review, 179 cases had surgery. Regardless of which therapy is selected, experience at City of Hope suggests caution in the use of high-dose steroids prior to biopsy of pituitary masses suspicious for lymphoma. Under these circumstances, steroid use and subsequent tapering of the same may mask the diagnosis of lymphoma, leading to a negative biopsy, causing early recurrence, and potentially negatively impacting vision.

Patient survival after the diagnosis of Pit Met depends on the presence of other metastases and the subtype of the primary malignancy. Resection alone, with or without radiotherapy, does not change survival rates (154). The median survival rate after surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is 6 months (155, 156). Review of the literature determined the mean survival post-Pit Met diagnosis was 13.6 months. In our case series in City of Hope Hospital, median survival after diagnosis of Pit Met was 10 months. The differences in these data could be secondary to earlier diagnosis and more aggressive treatment of metastasis in the City of Hope group.

The present study has a number of limitations. First, analysis of City of Hope cases was descriptive and retrospective with two cases having incomplete medical records. Second, the size of the clinical cohort was quite small, thus limiting the strength of any conclusions drawn. Third, the data were not balanced by a control cohort. And finally, the study was single center based and could be biased by local unaccounted for factors.

Although the detection and treatment of cancers in general have improved, the incidence of Pit Mets has been increasing. Pit Mets may be the initial presentation of many cancers or may arise during treatment. Physicians should be cautious when a patient presents with extreme fatigue or symptoms suspicious for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenalism. The mechanism of attracting metastatic cells to the pituitary gland is not clear yet. It may be due to the vascular distribution of the pituitary gland, characteristics of the primary tumor or yet to be determined features of the pituitary gland milieu. Determining the molecular characteristics of the tumor and hosting environments will help to elucidate the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

Declaration of interest

B Salehian: Eisai Inc. Consultant, Speaker Bureau. The other contributing authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Funding

This study did not receive funding from any agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Author contribution statement

Study conception and design: Aida Javanbakht, Behrouz Salehian. Acquisition of data: Aida Javanbakht, Behrouz Salehian, Massimo D’Apuzzo, Behnam Badie. Analysis and interpretation of data: Aida Javanbakht. Drafting of manuscript: Aida Javanbakht. Critical revision: Behrouz Salehian.

Acknowledgement

The authors thank our colleague Kerin Higa for editing the manuscript.

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    ZoliMMazzatentaDFaustini-FustiniMPasquiniEFrankG. Pituitary metastases: role of surgery. World Neurosurgery 2013 79 327330. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2012.03.018)

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    ChenCWChenCYLeeHSSuYH. Pituitary metastasis from bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Journal of Medical Sciences 2005 25 253256.

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    Frequencies of the pituitary metastasis primary sites reported in the literature from 1957 to 2018.

  • 1

    ChiangMFBrockMPattS. Pituitary metastases. Neurochirurgia 1990 33 127131. (https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1053571)

  • 2

    FredaPUWardlawSLBruceJNPostKDGolandRS. Differential diagnosis in Cushing syndrome. Use of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Medicine 1995 74 7482. (https://doi.org/10.1097/00005792-199503000-00002)

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  • 3

    TeearsRJSilvermanEM. Clinicopathologic review of 88 cases of carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland. Cancer 1975 36 216220.

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  • 4

    BeltramiCAGrandiE. Pituitary metastases. Rivista di Patologia Clinica e Sperimentale 1970 11 197211.

  • 5

    DelarueJChometteGPinaudeauYBrocheriouCAuriolM. Pituitary metastases. Frequency. Histopathologic Study. Archives d’Anatomie Pathologique 1964 12 179182.

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  • 6

    FassettDRCouldwellWT. Metastases to the pituitary gland. Neurosurgical Focus 2004 16 E5.

  • 7

    MetivierACGrunenbergerFSchumacherCSchottRJeungMYSchliengerJLPauliGQuoixE. Pituitary metastases from lung cancer. Five cases. Revue de Pneumologie Clinique 2006 62 231236.

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  • 8

    Ntyonga-PonoMPThomopoulosPLutonJP. Pituitary metastases. 3 Cases. Presse Medicale 1999 2 15671571.

  • 9

    PozzessereDZafaranaEBuccolieroAMPratesiCFargnoliRDi LeoADi LeoA. Gastric cancer metastatic to the pituitary gland: a case report. Tumori 2007 93 217219. (https://doi.org/10.1177/030089160709300221)

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  • 10

    AgarwalKKSharmaPSinglaSSuman KcSBalCKumarR. A rare case of non-small cell lung cancer metastasizing to the pituitary gland: detection with (18).F-FDG PET-CT. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 2014 39 318319.

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  • 11

    Al-AridiREl SibaiKFuPKhanMSelmanWRArafahBM. Clinical and biochemical characteristic features of metastatic cancer to the sella turcica: an analytical review. Pituitary 2014 17 575587. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11102-013-0542-9)

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  • 12

    AltayTKrishtKMCouldwellWT. Sellar and parasellar metastatic tumors. International Journal of Surgical Oncology 2012 2012 647256. (https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/647256)

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  • 13

    ArielDSungHCoghlanNDoddRGibbsICKatznelsonL. Clinical characteristics and pituitary dysfunction in patients with metastatic cancer to the sella. Endocrine Practices 2013 19 914919. (https://doi.org/10.4158/EP12407.OR)

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  • 14

    AungTHPoYCWongWK. Hepatocellular carcinoma with metastasis to the skull base, pituitary gland, sphenoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. Hong Kong Medical Journal 2002 8 4851.

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  • 15

    AzambujaEPiccartMJAwadaA. Long-term survival in pituitary metastasis from breast cancer. Breast 2006 15 446447.

  • 16

    BarbaroDDesogusNBoniG. Pituitary metastasis of thyroid cancer. Endocrine 2013 43 485493. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-012-9806-9)

  • 17

    BeckettDJGamaRWrightJFernsGA. Renal carcinoma presenting with adrenocortical insufficiency due to a pituitary metastasis. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 1998 35 542544. (https://doi.org/10.1177/000456329803500410)

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  • 18

    BelfquihHAkhaddarAElmoustarchidBBoucettaM. Pituitary metastasis revealed by a chiasma syndrome. Headache 2012 52 820821. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2010.01805.x)

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
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    • Export Citation
  • 19

    BellCDKovacsKHorvathESmytheHAsaS. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid metastatic to the pituitary gland. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2001 125 935938. (https://doi.org/10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125<0935:PCOTMT>2.0.CO;2)

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  • 20

    BerneyCBorruatFXde TriboletN. Spontaneous visual improvement in pituitary metastasis. European Journal of Ophthalmology 2003 13 105107. (https://doi.org/10.1177/112067210301300120)

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  • 21

    BhatoeHSDuttaVKannanN. Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 2008 89 6367. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-008-9586-5)

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  • 22

    BouazizHKaffelNCharfiNFouratiMAbidHAbidM. Panhypopituitarism revealing metastasis of small-cell lung carcinoma associated with sarcoidosis. Annales d’Endocrinologie 2006 67 259264.

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  • 23

    BuonaguidiRFerdeghiniMFaggionatoFTusiniG. Intrasellar metastasis mimicking a pituitary adenoma. Surgical Neurology 1983 20 373378. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-3019(83)90005-8)

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  • 24

    BurkhardtTHenzeMKluthLAWestphalMSchmidtNOFlitschJ. Surgical management of pituitary metastases. Pituitary 2016 19 1118. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11102-015-0676-z)

    • Crossref
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  • 25

    CavalloLMSolariD. Multimodality attitude for the treatment of a pituitary metastasis. World Neurosurgery 2013 79 673674. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2013.01.073)

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  • 26

    ChrisoulidouAPazaitou-PanayiotouKFlarisNDrimonitisAGiavroglouIGinikopoulouEVainasI. Pituitary metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Hormone Research 2004 61 190192. (https://doi.org/10.1159/000076387)

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  • 27

    ClavierHPoiraudeauSLe GrosVTouraniJM. Pituitary metastasis of a small cell bronchial carcinoma responsible for diabetes insipidus and disclosed by corticosteroid therapy. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 1987 4 185186.

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  • 28

    CoppolaASperaCLongobardiCVitterP. Etiopathogenetic aspects of central diabetes insipidus. Report of a clinical case. Minerva Medica 1989 80 11191124.

  • 29

    CouldwellWTChandrasomaPTWeissMH. Pituitary gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Case report. Journal of Neurological Surgery 1989 71 138140.

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  • 30

    CryarAKMorganJRockJPWisgerhofM. Pituitary metastasis: lung cancer presenting as bitemporal hemianopsia with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary deficiency. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal 1987 35 185187.

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  • 31

    DingHTaoGSFanHZhangTTLiuJ. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia metastasis to the pituitary: a case report. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 2015 60 547552.

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  • 32

    DjimiHAyebouaLVallyPOlindoSCabrePVenturaELandauMRicherRMerleH. Hypophysis metastasis of a hypernephroma tumor revealed by a chiasma syndrome. Journal Français d’Ophtalmologie 2003 26 976979.

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  • 33

    DoganMKarakilicEOzIIZorluFAkbulutH. Breast cancer with diabetes insipidus. Experimental Oncology 2008 30 324326.

  • 34

    DouXLZhouNMaiYLGuanMSunZGaoXBaiCM. Gastric cancer with pituitary metastasis presenting as symptomatic secondary adrenal insufficiency: a case report. Journal of Digestive Diseases 2017 18 369372. (https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12476)

    • Crossref
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  • 35

    EloyPEvrardASDonckierJGodfraindCGustinTColletSRombauxPBertrandB. Metastasis of a small cell carcinoma from undetected origin to the pituitary gland – the otolaryngologist’s view. B-ENT 2005 1 159163.

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  • 36

    ErsoyRTopalogluOAydinCDirikocACakirB. Pituitary metastasis of breast cancer confirmed by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: a case report. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2007 30 532533. (https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03346341)

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  • 37

    FeghalyJAstrasG. Diagnosis and management of isolated pituitary metastasis from adenocarcinoma of unknown origin presenting as loss of libido. BMJ Case Reports 2015 bcr2014208735. (https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-208735)

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  • 38

    FelettiARossiSCanalFLongattiPBilleciD. Pituitary metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 2010 97 295299. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-009-0025-z)

    • Crossref
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  • 39

    FridleyJAdamsGRaoVPatelAHumphriesWGoodmanCGopinathS. Small cell lung cancer metastasis in the pituitary gland presenting with seizures and headache. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2011 18 420422. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2010.05.006)

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  • 40

    FukunagaAYazakiTShimizuKOchiaiM. A case of pituitary metastasis in a patient with male breast cancer developing anterior lobe dysfunction successfully treated by using hormone replacement therapy. No Shinkei Geka 2014 42 629633.

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    • Export Citation
  • 41

    FurutaSHatakeyamaTZenkeKFukumotoS. Pituitary metastasis from carcinoma of the urinary bladder mimicking pituitary apoplexy. Case report. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica 1999 39 165168.

    • Crossref
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  • 42

    GilJCrespoCFraJRuiz de TemiñoÁCuéllarL. Panhypopituitarism secondary to pituitary metastasis in a patient with breast cancer. Semergen 2016 42 e4e6.

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  • 43

    GogliaUFeroneDSidotiMSpazianteRDadatiPRavettiJLVillaGBodeiLPaganelliGMinutoFet al. Treatment of a pituitary metastasis from a neuroendocrine tumour: case report and literature review. Pituitary 2008 11 93102. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11102-007-0038-6)

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  • 44

    GormallyJFIzardMARobinsonBGBoyleFM. Pituitary metastasis from breast cancer presenting as diabetes insipidus. BMJ Case Reports 2014 2014 bcr2014203683. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-203683)

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  • 45

    GoulartCRUpadhyaySDitzel FilhoLFSBeer-FurlanACarrauRLPrevedelloLMPrevedelloDM. Newly diagnosed sellar tumors in patients with cancer: a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma. World Neurosurgery 2017 106 254265.

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  • 46

    GranataAViolaGPriviteraCRomeoGCacciaguerraSGaetaMSicurezzaEFigueraM. Smoking, polyuria and impaired vision. Clinical Nephrology 2007 67 4952. (https://doi.org/10.5414/CNP67049)

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  • 47

    GrossmanRMaimonSLeviteRRamZ. Multimodal treatment of hemorrhagic pituitary metastasis as first manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. World Neurosurgery 2013 79 798.

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  • 48

    GulsinGSJocobsMLGohilSThomasALevyM. Competing interests in a lung cancer with metastasis to the pituitary gland: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion versus diabetes insipidus. Oxford Medical Case Reports 2016 2016 125129. (https://doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omw044)

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  • 49

    GunnGBVillaRDSedlerRRHardwickeFFornariGAMarkRJ. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report and literature review. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 2004 68 8790. (https://doi.org/10.1023/B:NEON.0000024750.93572.ce)

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  • 50

    GurCLalazarGSalmonADubinerVGrossDJ. Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report. Pituitary 2008 11 293297. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11102-007-0053-7)

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  • 51

    GurlingKJScottGBBaronDN. Metastases in pituitary tissue removed at hypophysectomy in women with mammary carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer 1957 11 519522. (https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1957.63)

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  • 52

    HabuMTokimuraHHiranoHYasudaSNagatomoYIwaiYKawagishiJTatewakiKYunoueSCamposFet al. Pituitary metastases: current practice in Japan. Journal of Neurological Surgery 2015 123 9981007.

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  • 53

    HarzallahLMigawHHarzallahFKraiemCh. Diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism revealing pituitary metastasis of small cell lung carcinoma: a case report. Annales d’Endocrinologie 2005 66 117120.

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  • 54

    HayashiNMitsuya HaradaHWatanabeJNishimuraTNakasuY. Leptomeningeal dissemination in patients with pituitary metastasis from breast cancer. No Shinkei Geka 2016 44 371376.

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  • 55

    HermetMDelévauxITrouillierSAndréMChazalJAumaîtreO. Pituitary metastasis presenting as diabetes insipidus: a report of four cases and literature review. Revue de Medecine Interne 2009 30 425429.

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  • 56

    HirschDBenbassatCADrozdTOkonEBlumI. Pituitary and bilateral adrenal enlargement: an unusual presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2005 28 454458. (https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03347227)

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  • 57

    HuangYYLinSFDunnPWaiYYHsuehCTsaiJS. Primary pituitary lymphoma presenting as hypophysitis. Endocrine Journal 2005 52 543549. (https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.52.543)