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Göran Oleröd, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Ola Hammarsten, and Eva Klingberg

Introduction Vitamin D is essential for the calcium homeostasis and bone health and also of importance for the immune function, muscles and the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D3 is mainly produced in the skin after ultraviolet radiation, but

Open access

Julia Kubiak, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Elena Kamycheva, and Rolf Jorde

Introduction It is widely acknowledged that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the enzymes necessary for the hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) are located

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Amarjit Saini, Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Johan Boström, Mats Lilja, Michael Melin, Karl Olsson, Lena Ekström, Peter Bergman, Mikael Altun, Eric Rullman, and Thomas Gustafsson

Introduction Adequate vitamin D concentrations play a key role in skeletal health. Although there is no agreement on optimal plasma levels of vitamin D, it is apparent that blood precursor/pre-hormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are

Open access

Christian Trummer, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, and Elisabeth Lerchbaum

Introduction Considering the high prevalence of an insufficient vitamin D status in many populations as well as the potential link between low vitamin D status and adverse health outcomes ( 1 ), vitamin D deficiency is classified as an

Open access

Barbara J Boucher

Associations of vitamin D status with health outcomes Cross-sectionally, vitamin D cures/prevents rickets but populations remain deficient ( 1 , 2 ) as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D), which is inversely

Open access

J A Tamblyn, C Jenkinson, D P Larner, M Hewison, and M D Kilby

major site for vitamin D metabolism, expressing the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) enzyme that synthesises 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D3) from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), as well as 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24

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S Westra, Y H M Krul-Poel, H J van Wijland, M M ter Wee, F Stam, P Lips, F Pouwer, and S Simsek

-specific complications ( 2 , 3 ). Moreover, people with depressive symptoms and diabetes had an almost 50% increased all-cause mortality rate, probably due to non-optimal self-care ( 2 ). Low vitamin D status is common in people with type 2 DM ( 7 ), and previous

Open access

Laura P B Elbers, Marije Wijnberge, Joost C M Meijers, Dennis C W Poland, Dees P M Brandjes, Eric Fliers, and Victor E A Gerdes

. Besides, most of the current evidence does not allow us to assess the effect of increased and normalized values of PTH on coagulation within the same persons. Vitamin D deficiency is the most frequent cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this study

Open access

Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März, and Marlene Pandis

Introduction Vitamin D is critical for bone and mineral metabolism and is effective in the prevention and treatment of rickets and osteomalacia ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Given that vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed in almost every

Open access

Marc Blondon, Emmanuel Biver, Olivia Braillard, Marc Righini, Pierre Fontana, and Alessandro Casini

disability-adjusted life-years in both high- and low-income countries. With this massive burden, prevention efforts may yield important positive effects on the population’s health. In observational studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased