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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

complications, the increased risk for fragility fractures has recently been recognized as an important complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). While type 1 diabetics have low bone mineral density and a six- to

Open access

Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and François R Jornayvaz

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis may involve the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) ( 1 ). Common features observed in T2DM and metabolic syndrome, such as elevated fasting glucose, obesity, hyperlipidemia or

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Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul and Sinan Cavun

Introduction Excess weight and weight gain are significant problems in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). Weight reduction is a critical part of type 2 diabetic patients’ management to obtain better glycemic control

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Sweta Budyal, Swati Sachin Jadhav, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Hiren Patt, Shruti Khare, Vyankatesh Shivane, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah

with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, osteoporosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) . As impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are important metabolic manifestations of CS, several studies have attempted to examine the

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S Westra, Y H M Krul-Poel, H J van Wijland, M M ter Wee, F Stam, P Lips, F Pouwer and S Simsek

increased risk for microvascular and macrovascular complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease ( 1 ). Furthermore, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM), relatively high

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Lars Peter Sørensen, Tina Parkner, Esben Søndergaard, Bo Martin Bibby, Holger Jon Møller and Søren Nielsen

Introduction Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity vary between individuals (1) . The mechanisms underlying obesity

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Borros Arneth

. ( doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.08.040190.003243 ) 2188676 10.1146/annurev.iy.08.040190.003243 2 Zhang L Eisenbarth GS. Prediction and prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus . Journal of Diabetes 2011 3 48 – 57 . ( doi:10.1111/j.1753

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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman and Helena J Teede

associated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes (DM2), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidaemia and increased risk factors for both cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9

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E N Dudinskaya, O N Tkacheva, M V Shestakova, N V Brailova, I D Strazhesko, D U Akasheva, O Y Isaykina, N V Sharashkina, D A Kashtanova and S A Boytsov

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic noncommunicable disease that has reached epidemic proportions. Type 2 DM (T2DM) inevitably leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications that aggravate the course and prognosis of

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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

supplementation on hepatic dysfunction, vitamin D status, and glycemic control in children and adolescents with vitamin D deficiency and either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus . PLoS ONE 2014 9 e99646 . ( https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099646