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A Rouland Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France

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J-C Chauvet-Gelinier Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France
INSERM Unit, LNC-UMR 1231, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France

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A-L Sberna Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France
INSERM Unit, LNC-UMR 1231, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France

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E Crevisy Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France

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P Buffier Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France

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T Mouillot Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France

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J-M Petit Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France
INSERM Unit, LNC-UMR 1231, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France

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B Vergès Endocrinology Diabetics and Metabolic Disorders Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France
INSERM Unit, LNC-UMR 1231, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France

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Introduction Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are chronic diseases in which psychological determinants are an important field of research, not only to improve personalized treatment and educational strategies, but also to directly

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Ali Abbasi MRC Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Post Box 285, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Post Box 285, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

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Introduction Over the past decade, interest in studying biological markers (biomarkers) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased intensely. This happened because multiple pathobiological processes may contribute to the disease progression, which

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Ram P Narayanan Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Bo Fu Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Adrian H Heald Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Kirk W Siddals Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Robert L Oliver Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Julie E Hudson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Antony Payton Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Simon G Anderson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Anne White Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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William E R Ollier Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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J Martin Gibson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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the renal glomerulus (3) . In this study, we used ‘real-world’ data to examine the hypothesis that concentrations of IGF2 and IGFBP2 at baseline were associated with longitudinal trends in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes. Subjects

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Qiu-ming Yao Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bin Wang Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiao-fei An Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jin-an Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China

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Liumei Ding Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Introduction Diabetes is a public health issue, and there are over 0.4 billion people suffering from diabetes over the world, and its prevalence is still increasing remarkably every year ( 1 ). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the major type

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Xi Zhang Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Graduate School, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Xiurong Shen Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Graduate School, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Wan Zhou Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Mengyun Xu Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Yan Xing Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Jianping Weng Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Shandong Ye Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Suowen Xu Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Zhi Zhang Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Wei Wang Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D), the most common form of diabetes, has fallen into the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. The harms of T2D arise from its complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and

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Richard H Tuligenga INSERM U1018, Université Paris Sud, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Bât 15/16, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Paris, Villejuif Cedex, France
INSERM U1018, Université Paris Sud, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Bât 15/16, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Paris, Villejuif Cedex, France

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Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus show faster cognitive decline compared with healthy subjects (1) . Numerous studies in patients with type 2 diabetes have dealt with the association between the level of glycaemic control and the

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Emanuela Zaharieva Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Zdravko Kamenov Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Tsvetelina Velikova Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Adelina Tsakova Department of Clinical Laboratory, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Central Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Yosif El-Darawish Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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Haruki Okamura Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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helper immune response ( 3 , 4 ). Apart from its place in immune defense against infective pathogens, IL-18 participates in the pathogenesis of atopic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases ( 3 , 4 ). Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been

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Merlin C Thomas Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Brendon L Neuen The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Stephen M Twigg The University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Mark E Cooper Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Sunil V Badve The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Renal Medicine, St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Introduction At least half of all adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have comorbid chronic kidney disease (CKD), with either an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (uAER) and/or a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ( 1 , 2

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Alessandra Gambineri Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Carla Pelusi Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Role of sex and gender on the development of type 2 diabetes There is increasing evidence that sex and gender differences influence the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and outcomes of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM

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Alice S Ryan VA Maryland Health Care System, Division of Endocrinology, Research Service, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 10 North Greene Street GRECC (BT/18/GR), Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

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John C McLenithan VA Maryland Health Care System, Division of Endocrinology, Research Service, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 10 North Greene Street GRECC (BT/18/GR), Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

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Gretchen M Zietowski VA Maryland Health Care System, Division of Endocrinology, Research Service, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 10 North Greene Street GRECC (BT/18/GR), Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

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Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within 5 years following pregnancy (1, 2) with the reported incidence of T2DM ranging from

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