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Madalena von Hafe, João Sergio Neves, Catarina Vale, Marta Borges-Canha and Adelino Leite-Moreira

Introduction Thyroid hormones (THs) play fundamental roles in cardiovascular homeostasis ( 1 ). Given that cardiovascular diseases are among the most prevalent illnesses worldwide, causing substantial mortality, morbidity and hospitalization

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Thiago U Pantaleão, Andrea C F Ferreira, Maria C S Santos, Álvaro S P Figueiredo, Ruy A N Louzada, Doris Rosenthal, Denise P Carvalho and Vânia M Corrêa da Costa

to mothers and infants), metallic mercury from dental amalgam fillings, and cinnabar, a naturally occurring mineral consisting primarily of mercury sulphide, used in the traditional Chinese medicine ( 1 , 3 ). Thyroid hormones (TH) play an

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Christin Krause, Martina Grohs, Alexander T El Gammal, Stefan Wolter, Hendrik Lehnert, Oliver Mann, Jens Mittag and Henriette Kirchner

progression of NAFLD ( 2 ), including thyroid hormone (TH). A strong connection between systemic hypothyroidism and NAFLD has been established in humans ( 3 , 4 , 5 ) and rodents ( 6 ). Even in the euthryoid range, a link between NAFLD and higher free 3

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Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Saskia Aan, Anton T J Tool, Annemarie van de Geer, Korcan Demir, Anja L M van Gucht, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Timo K van den Berg, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal growth and development and largely exerts its biological actions through binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors ( 1 ). Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are encoded by the thyroid

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John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich and Rudolf Hoermann

hypothyroidism that require thyroid hormone replacement (2, 3) . This is mainly done by administration of synthetic levothyroxine ( l -T 4 ), which is a well-established, convenient, safe and inexpensive treatment modality (4, 5) . However, this does not

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M Krause, H Frederiksen, K Sundberg, F S Jørgensen, L N Jensen, P Nørgaard, C Jørgensen, P Ertberg, J H Petersen, U Feldt-Rasmussen, A Juul, K T Drzewiecki, N E Skakkebaek and A M Andersson

humans, urinary concentrations of BP-3 was associated with decrease in thyroid hormones in both background population and pregnant women ( 22 , 23 ) and when measured in urine of pregnant women, BP-3 was associated with sex-dependent impact on

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Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini and Barbara A Demeneix

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development where it influences, during specific temporal windows, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal and glial cell differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. These

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Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias and Torsten Matthias

peroxidase antibodies (TPO). The disease is a common cause of low thyroid hormones with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) but some exhibit subclinical hypothyroidism. Interestingly, symptoms of HT and celiac disease (CD) often overlap ( Table 1 ), and

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Boni Xiang, Ran Tao, Xinhua Liu, Xiaoming Zhu, Min He, Zengyi Ma, Yehong Yang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Yiming Li, Zhenwei Yao, Yongfei Wang and Hongying Ye

commonly characterized by menstrual abnormalities in adults and growth retardation in children. Besides, the thyroid hormone changes in hypercortisolemia have been reported since 1952. Fredrickson et al. described that massive doses of cortisone acetate

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L E Zijlstra, D M van Velzen, S Simsek, S P Mooijaart, M van Buren, D J Stott, I Ford, J W Jukema and S Trompet

increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and increased risk of stroke, high circulating free thyroxin (fT4) and increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism and increased risk of coronary heart disease and