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Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Stefano Christian Londero, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Jens Bentzen, Sören Möller, Mette Gaustadnes, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Christian Godballe and Danish Thyroid Cancer Group (DATHYRCA)

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with an incidence of 0.19 per 100,000 per year and a prevalence of 3.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. MTC is divided into a sporadic and hereditary type accounting for

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular complications, by promoting a low-grade WAT inflammation (1, 2) . Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body metabolism. Their effects include the stimulation of resting

Open access

Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini and Barbara A Demeneix

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development where it influences, during specific temporal windows, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal and glial cell differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. These

Open access

Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias and Torsten Matthias

Introduction Hashimoto's thyroiditis Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is one of the most common autoimmune endocrine diseases, characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of the thyroid gland. Initially considered a rarity, HT has now

Open access

Simonetta Piana, Eleonora Zanetti, Alessandra Bisagni, Alessia Ciarrocchi, Davide Giordano, Federica Torricelli, Teresa Rossi and Moira Ragazzi

the prototype and by far the most studied member of this family of receptors. NOTCH1 as other members of this family has been involved in the development of thyroid cancer even if with controversial role. On one side the activation of NOTCH signaling

Open access

Kristine Zøylner Swan, Steen Joop Bonnema, Marie Louise Jespersen and Viveque Egsgaard Nielsen

Introduction Thyroid nodular disease is common in many populations, with the majority of the nodules being benign ( 1 ). The primary purpose of diagnostic testing is to assess the risk of thyroid carcinoma in these nodules. Although

Open access

Tiemo S Gerber, Arno Schad, Nils Hartmann, Erik Springer, Ulrich Zechner and Thomas J Musholt

Introduction Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) represents an aggressive variant of thyroid cancer that predominantly arises from the differentiated variants of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively

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L Johnsen, N B Lyckegaard, P Khanal, B Quistorff, K Raun and M O Nielsen

function ( 8 , 9 ) and more recently programming of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adipose axis ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). However, much less attention has been paid to the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis, which plays a fundamental role in normal

Open access

Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

Introduction Thyroid hormones exert important effects on basal and adaptive metabolism ( 1 ). Although several studies have shown that triiodothyronine (T 3 ) may regulate glucose uptake and oxygen consumption ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8

Open access

Ashley N Reeb, Andrea Ziegler and Reigh-Yi Lin

Introduction Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is the second most frequently diagnosed thyroid cancer after papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). About 10,000 cases of FTC are diagnosed annually in the United States, comprising about 10–15% of all