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  • tamoxifen inducible x
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K E Lines, R P Vas Nunes, M Frost, C J Yates, M Stevenson and R V Thakker

help to overcome such limitations, as illustrated by use of a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of the Men1 gene, activated by fusing a pan-active human ubiquitin C9 (UBC9) promoter to Cre recombinase and a modified oestrogen receptor (ER), to create a

Open access

Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh and Hyun-Ah Kim

estrogen that exerts paracrine and intracrine tumorigenic effects ( 17 ). As a consequence of the process, the level of estradiol in tumor of breast cancer is significantly higher compared with circulating level in 18 , 19 . Tamoxifen is a

Open access

Hyun-Ah Kim, Jihye Choi, Chan Sub Park, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Jin Kyung Lee, Woo Chul Noh and the ASTRRA trial investigators

inhibitors (AIs) demonstrate superior survival benefit over tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients ( 6 ). However, it should be prescribed with caution for patients with uncertain menopausal status, such as patients with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea

Open access

Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano and Ramesh Narayanan

from non-AR-expressing PCas, such as the neuroendocrine subtype. Cabazitaxel Cabazitaxel (Jevtana) acts by stabilizing microtubules and thereby inducing apoptosis ( 39 ). Open-label and randomized trials in mCRPC patients with either 25 mg/m 2 of

Open access

Emmanuelle Noirrit, Mélissa Buscato, Marion Dupuis, Bernard Payrastre, Coralie Fontaine, Jean-François Arnal and Marie-Cécile Valera

of the third-generation of SERMs, with conjugated equine estrogen (CE) (Premarin ® ) ( 10 ). It must be emphasized that BZA is not only a SERM, but it also induces a rapid degradation of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) in some tissues, such as the

Open access

Willem de Ronde and Diederik L Smit

). Oestrogens, although present in much smaller concentrations compared to androgens, have strong suppressive effects on gonadotrophin production ( 10 ). Anti-oestrogens, such as tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate, have been shown to stimulate gonadotrophin and

Open access

Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu and Xi Dong

-onset menopause and use of tamoxifen, while type II is more aggressive and estrogen independent ( 2 , 3 ). Disturbance of cell invasion and aggressive behavior is one of the main malignant characters of cancer cells ( 4 ). Therefore, understanding the underlying

Open access

Agnieszka Kosowska, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Garczorz, Agnieszka Kłych-Ratuszny, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michał Woz´niak, Andrzej Witek, Agnieszka Wróblewska-Czech, Anna Cygal, Jerzy Wojnar and Tomasz Francuz

compared to patients on metformin or patients without diabetes. To date, metformin has proven to give beneficial effects in patients with cancer, leading to longer survival rates, better prognosis and in vitro inducing apoptosis of some tumor cell lines

Open access

Qianqian Pang, Yuping Xu, Xuan Qi, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Mei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Ling Qin and Weibo Xia

, and the treatments are mostly focused on alleviation of symptoms, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), pamidronate and tamoxifen citrate to relieve painful osteoarthropathy ( 19 , 20 ). Given that the increased circulating PGE 2