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S U Jayasinghe, S J Torres, C A Nowson, A J Tilbrook and A I Turner

) . While acute responses to stress are generally considered effective in dealing with immediate threats, prolonged activation of stress processes could have significant adverse consequences for individuals (2) . However, frequent exposure to acute

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

-induced suppression of inflammation ( 3 ). Acute stress increases transiently plasma glucocorticoids, whereas chronic stress is associated with a chronic elevation of circulating glucocorticoids ( 4 ). The response of the target cells to glucocorticoids does not

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Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

Introduction The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, also named CRF) plays a key role in the integration of neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress ( 1 ). Hypothalamic paraventricular CRH-secreting neurons

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Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt and Jay Schulkin

Introduction Stress reactions are by no means universal, and the activation of ‘stress hormones’, such as glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), is not necessarily the mark of a stress response ( 1 ). Some individuals have

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Rachel K Rowe, Benjamin M Rumney, Hazel G May, Paska Permana, P David Adelson, S Mitchell Harman, Jonathan Lifshitz and Theresa C Thomas

stimulation and lower scores indicate normal responses. Restraint stress and blood collection A preinjury blood sample (baseline) was taken from each rat before mFPI or sham injury. The day of surgery (between 08:45 and 12:00h), rats were removed from

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno and Hiroshi Wachi

relationship between atopic dermatitis and stress in human skin tissue. Recent studies also suggest a relationship between stress and atopic dermatitis. In an investigation of the stress response, which was determined by the measurement of salivary cortisol

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

is also involved in the response to acute stressors such as major surgery ( 12 ) and stress-induced gastric mucosal injury ( 13 , 14 ). Ghrelin stimulates the secretion of hormones involved in the stress response, including vasopressin, ACTH

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Clara Odilia Sailer, Sophia Julia Wiedemann, Konrad Strauss, Ingeborg Schnyder, Wiebke Kristin Fenske and Mirjam Christ-Crain

an increased inflammatory response with an increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon hypernatremia and hyperosmolality ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). Human in vivo studies investigating

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Tingting Shu, Zhigang Lv, Yuchun Xie, Junming Tang and Xuhua Mao

inflammatory response, oxidative stress ( 12 ) and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways ( 13 ), which affect glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues ( 5 ). To date, there have been few reports describing the role of hepcidin in pancreatic β-cells. Our previous

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Trevor Lewis, Eva Zeisig and Jamie E Gaida

the context of the stress response, it is important to remember that the HPA axis is only one of many stress-responsive systems within the body ( 15 , 18 ). A stressor is a real or perceived threat to homeostasis or well-being. This definition