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L Ghataore Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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I Chakraborti Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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S J Aylwin Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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K-M Schulte Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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D Dworakowska Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK
Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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P Coskeran Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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N F Taylor Departments of, Clinical Biochemistry, Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK

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in widespread use since publication in 2007 of the large retrospective study of Terzolo et al . (3) . Accumulated knowledge of the mode of action of mitotane together with its effects on steroid synthesis and catabolism is patchy. Mitotane targets

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Britt J van Keulen Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, de Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Michelle Romijn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, de Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Bibian van der Voorn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Marita de Waard Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, locations AMC and VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Michaela F Hartmann Steroid Research and Mass Spectrometry Unit, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany

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Johannes B van Goudoever Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, locations AMC and VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Stefan A Wudy Steroid Research and Mass Spectrometry Unit, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany

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Joost Rotteveel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Martijn J J Finken Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, de Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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and thawed only once just before analysis. After placement in a salivette, the pad was centrifuged at 1900 g for 5 min, enabling the extraction of urine. Urinary steroids were determined using quantitative data produced by gas chromatography

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P Herbert School of Sport, Health and Outdoor Education, Trinity Saint David, University of Wales, Wales, UK

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LD Hayes Active Ageing Research Group, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK

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NF Sculthorpe Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, UK

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FM Grace Faculty of Health, Federation University, Victoria, Australia

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-frequency HIIT would improve PPO compared with normal exercise training and (ii) systemic steroid hormones would be unchanged following low-frequency HIIT in masters athletes. Materials and methods Participants Following familiarization with

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Britt J van Keulen Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Conor V Dolan Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Bibian van der Voorn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Ruth Andrew Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK

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Brian R Walker Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Hilleke Hulshoff Pol Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Dorret I Boomsma Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Joost Rotteveel Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Martijn J J Finken Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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cortisol levels. Compared to girls, boys, up to age 8, had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower levels beyond this age ( 11 ). The timing of this change suggests that sex steroids influence the HPA axis. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge

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Aneta Gawlik Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Endocrinology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Upper Silesia Children’s Care Health Centre, Katowice, Poland

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Michael Shmoish Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

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Michaela F Hartmann Steroid Research & Mass Spectrometry Unit, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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Stefan A Wudy Steroid Research & Mass Spectrometry Unit, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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Zbigniew Olczak Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Upper Silesia Children’s Care Health Centre, Katowice, Poland

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Katarzyna Gruszczynska Department of Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Upper Silesia Children’s Care Health Centre, Katowice, Poland

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Ze’ev Hochberg Faculty of Medicine, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

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there is possibility of multiple diagnoses or before starting therapy with potentially hepatotoxic medications’ ( 8 ). The consequences of obesity-related NAFLD on liver metabolism are insufficiently understood ( 8 ). As steroid hormones are partially

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Thomas Reinehr Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany

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Alberto Sánchez-Guijo Steroid Research & Mass Spectrometry Unit, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany

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Nina Lass Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany

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Stefan A Wudy Steroid Research & Mass Spectrometry Unit, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany

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Introduction Obesity is a complex condition associated with changes in many steroid hormones also including androgens: concentrations of testosterone and DHEAS and their precursors are increased in children ( 1 , 2 ) and obese women ( 3

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Lawrence D Hayes Active Ageing Research Group, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK

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Peter Herbert School of Sport, Health and Outdoor Education, Trinity Saint David, University of Wales, Carmarthen, UK

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Nicholas F Sculthorpe Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK

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Fergal M Grace Faculty of Health, Federation University, Victoria, Australia

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Introduction Testosterone is a sex steroid hormone with profound influence on various tissues ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The precipitous decline in systemic testosterone with age is well described ( 4 ). Additionally, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG

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Willem de Ronde Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, the Netherlands

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Diederik L Smit Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, the Netherlands

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Introduction Every now and then a clinical endocrinologist will be visited by a patient that uses anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) or has been using them in the past. The interaction between doctor and patient may be hampered for a number of

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T P Parikh Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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B Stolze Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Y Ozarda Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

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J Jonklaas Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

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K Welsh Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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L Masika Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology/National Health Laboratory Service Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa

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M Hill Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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A DeCherney Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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S J Soldin Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

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Introduction Diurnal variations in the serum concentration of steroid hormones and their metabolism, as assessed by urinary excretion, have long been known for cortisol and testosterone ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Less information exists for the other up

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Henrik Ryberg Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anna-Karin Norlén Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Andreas Landin Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Per Johansson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Zeinab Salman Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anders Wallin Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden

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Johan Svensson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Skaraborg Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden

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Claes Ohlsson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Introduction Sex steroid hormones are predominantly produced from cholesterol by the gonads and the adrenal glands. Then, the sex steroids are distributed to target tissues through the circulation. In addition, many tissues and organs

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