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Renea A Taylor, Jennifer Lo, Natasha Ascui and Matthew J Watt

.15–2.33) (12) . This small, but statistically significant, result is meaningful considering the many millions of men affected by prostate cancer. Thus, obese men are more likely to die from prostate cancer-specific causes compared to men of a healthy weight

Open access

Emma Jernberg, Anders Bergh and Pernilla Wikström

). Figure 1 Different molecular explanations behind androgen receptor (AR) activation in castration-resistant prostate cancer, illustrated by an epithelial cancer cell interacting with AR-positive and non-AR-positive cells in the microenvironment of a

Open access

M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head and J V Conaglen

demonstrating ERG (ETS transcription factor) rearrangements (similar to that of prostate adenocarcinoma) compared to an absence of this change in small-cell lung cancer. As such, assessment of ERG rearrangements may be helpful in determining a prostatic

Open access

D A Dart, K Ashelford and W G Jiang

competitively bind the AR, to the exclusion of testosterone (or DHT). Additionally AR antagonists may mediate a misfolding of AR helix 12 and cause the AR to become inactive ( 3 ). In either event, the starvation of prostate cancer cells of testosterone leads to

Open access

Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano and Ramesh Narayanan

converted locally in the prostate to DHT that will lead to an increase in prostate cancer cell growth. 4. Non-genomic activation. AR can be activated by growth factors and kinases ligand independently, which will cause an increase in the cancer growth. 5. AR

Open access

Irasema Mendieta, Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Lenin Pavón, Alfredo Rodríguez-Cruz, Guadalupe García-Alcocer and Laura Cristina Berumen

.1073/pnas.1207238109 2 Remark R Becker C Gomez JE Damotte D Dieu-Nosjean MC Sautes-Fridman C Fridman WH Powell CA Altorki NK Merad M , et al . The non-small cell lung cancer immune contexture. A major determinant of tumor characteristics and patient

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M L Gild, M Bullock, C K Pon, B G Robinson and R J Clifton-Bligh

including prostate (9) , non small cell lung cancer (10) , and osteosarcoma (11) . With regard to thyroid cancer, early studies have yielded data that supports the potential clinical utility of targeting HSP90 to treat this disease. 17-AAG has showed an

Open access

Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron and Haim Werner

Expression of AR in prostate cancer cell lines. (A) Western blot analysis of basal AR levels. Lysates were separated by 10% SDS–PAGE and AR levels were assessed as described in the ‘Subjects and methods’ section. AR levels were measured in the same membranes

Open access

Juan Carlos Juárez-Cruz, Miriam Daniela Zuñiga-Eulogio, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Eduardo Castañeda-Saucedo, Miguel Ángel Mendoza-Catalán, Carlos Ortuño-Pineda, Ma Elena Moreno-Godínez, Sócrates Villegas-Comonfort, Teresita Padilla-Benavides and Napoleón Navarro-Tito

, secretion and activation which in turn correlates with a highly invasive capacity of tumor cells ( 23 ). In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 degrade type IV collagen and promote the rupture of basal membranes in colorectal, prostate, lung and breast cancers ( 24

Open access

Stefano Mangiola, Ryan Stuchbery, Patrick McCoy, Ken Chow, Natalie Kurganovs, Michael Kerger, Anthony Papenfuss, Christopher M Hovens and Niall M Corcoran

pathway activation in high-grade tumours ( 53 ). In addition, there is evidence of a positive feedback loop, with conditioned media from prostate cancer cells significantly increasing the secretion of these cytokines from adipose tissue explants ( 52