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Henrik H Thomsen, Holger J Møller, Christian Trolle, Kristian A Groth, Anne Skakkebæk, Anders Bojesen, Christian Høst, and Claus H Gravholt

and KS is not fully understood and it is not known if the changes are entirely due to hypogonadism and most patients will require treatment with sex hormones for long periods of their lives. The low-grade inflammation seen in KS and TS are influenced

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Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

cortisol levels. Compared to girls, boys, up to age 8, had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower levels beyond this age ( 11 ). The timing of this change suggests that sex steroids influence the HPA axis. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge

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Johanna Christina Penell, Mark M Kushnir, Lars Lind, Jonatan Bergquist, Jonas Bergquist, P Monica Lind, and Tord Naessen

inter-variation than estradiol ( 7 , 12 ), which declines with the onset of menopause. Estradiol levels are very low in postmenopausal women ( 7 ) but play an important role for physiological functions. Although data on endogenous sex steroid

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Maki Igarashi, Tadayuki Ayabe, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Keiko Matsubara, Hatoko Sasaki, Mayako Saito-Abe, Miori Sato, Nathan Mise, Akihiko Ikegami, Masayuki Shimono, Reiko Suga, Shouichi Ohga, Masafumi Sanefuji, Masako Oda, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Takehiro Michikawa, Shin Yamazaki, Shoji Nakayama, Yukihiro Ohya, and Maki Fukami

years before developing physical signs, children undergo conspicuous changes in the blood levels of sex hormones. Usually, an increase in circulating adrenal steroids (‘adrenarche’) occurs at 7 or 8 years of age in children of both sexes ( 1 , 2 , 3

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M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

suggested to influence several extra-glycemic, metabolic, and endocrinological parameters, such as the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is a glycoprotein produced in the liver, which regulates the bioavailability of sex steroids for target tissues

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Letícia Ribeiro Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Longui, Guilherme Guaragna-Filho, José Luiz Costa, Rafael Lanaro, David Antônio Silva, Maria Izabel Chiamolera, Maricilda Palandi de Mello, André Moreno Morcillo, Andrea Trevas Maciel-Guerra, and Gil Guerra-Junior

Introduction The determination of steroid hormone concentration, which is part of the initial approach in the diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSD), is one of the challenges in pediatric endocrinology ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Based on the

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Manjeetkaur Sehemby, Prachi Bansal, Vijaya Sarathi, Ashwini Kolhe, Kanchan Kothari, Swati Jadhav-Ramteke, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini S Shah

malignancies of the ovary account for less than 10% of all ovarian cancers (germ cell tumors: 5%; sex cord stromal tumors: 3–5%) ( 1 ). Less than half of these nonepithelial tumors secrete hormones which can produce either estrogenic or androgenic

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

Introduction Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of healthy skin. Based on studies on older women, sex steroids in skin regulate the collagen content and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid ( 1 ). Estrogen-conjugated cream applied to

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Qiu-ming Yao, Bin Wang, Xiao-fei An, Jin-an Zhang, and Liumei Ding

. However, other studies suggest that T2DM is a risk factor for testosterone deficiency and impaired sex steroid status ( 73 ). One large prospective study showed that the development of T2DM is a major driver of the age-related testosterone decline ( 74

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Emanuelle Nunes-Souza, Mônica Evelise Silveira, Monalisa Castilho Mendes, Seigo Nagashima, Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula, Guilherme Guilherme Vieira Cavalcante da Silva, Giovanna Silva Barbosa, Julia Belgrowicz Martins, Lúcia de Noronha, Luana Lenzi, José Renato Sales Barbosa, Rayssa Danilow Fachin Donin, Juliana Ferreira de Moura, Gislaine Custódio, Cleber Machado-Souza, Enzo Lalli, and Bonald Cavalcante de Figueiredo

published in the same geographic region associating clinical data and blood DHEAS levels <2040 nmol/L, probably because sex steroids from ovaries are still abundant in pre-menopausal women. Benetti-Pinto et al. ( 27 ) have reported similar DHEAS levels