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Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März and Marlene Pandis

Several vitamin D guidelines and guidance papers have been published with heterogeneous and partially opposed opinions and recommendations regarding vitamin D requirements ( 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 ). To avoid confusion and misinterpretations, it

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Jean-Benoît Corcuff, Laurence Chardon, Ines El Hajji Ridah and Julie Brossaud

paragangliomas, we have encountered recommendations for urine sampling that were either clearly obsolete or not otherwise supported by bibliographic references ( Supplementary Data , see section on supplementary data given at the end of this article). We thus

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Caroline Culen, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering and Gabriele Haeusler

medical care in TS that propose clinical guidelines and recommendations occasionally also mention psychosocial issues ( 3 , 4 , 7 , 8 ), but these are no more than footnotes compared with the medical discourse ( 9 , 10 ). Patients with TS have to

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Amir Bashkin, Eliran Yaakobi, Marina Nodelman and Ohad Ronen

thyroid function results and preadmission diagnosis of thyroid disease. We also collected data on the treatment during hospitalization, including blood tests, imaging tests, endocrinologist counseling, medication and recommendations in the discharge letter

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Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Andreas Gleiss, Katharina Schubert, Caroline Culen, Peer Hauck, Johannes Ott, Alois Gessl and Gabriele Haeusler

been described ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ). A combination of these institutional and disorder-specific issues may be the reason for suboptimal medical care in adult women with TS despite published recommendations. The aim of this study was thus to

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Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier and Uwe Schwahn

to avoid common pitfalls. Furthermore, recommendations are given how to perform a basic validation of novel immunoassays for measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical measurement examples should increase the awareness for the

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Dirk Weismann, Andreas Schneider and Charlotte Höybye

practical point of view, the treating physician needs to know, which symptoms qualify for which treatment, and which measures comply with the steadily decreasing range of accepted maximum increases in sNA. A number of recommendations and guidelines have been

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Ruth Therese Casey, Deborah Saunders, Benjamin George Challis, Deborah Pitfield, Heok Cheow, Ashley Shaw and Helen Lisa Simpson

malignancy, screening recommendations include annual radiological and biochemical surveillance ( 3 ). It is important to note, however, that recommended screening strategies are based on non-prospective data, and current clinical practice guidelines recommend

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Agnieszka Kosowska, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Garczorz, Agnieszka Kłych-Ratuszny, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michał Woz´niak, Andrzej Witek, Agnieszka Wróblewska-Czech, Anna Cygal, Jerzy Wojnar and Tomasz Francuz

sulfonylureas or insulin: response to Bowker Diabetes Care 2006 29 1989 – 1990 . ( doi:10.2337/dbib6-0874 ) 16873827 10.2337/dc06-0874 5 American Diabetes Association Recommendations . Approaches to glycemic treatment. Sec. 7. In Standards of Medical

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Louise Vølund Larsen, Delphine Mirebeau-Prunier, Tsuneo Imai, Cristina Alvarez-Escola, Kornelia Hasse-Lazar, Simona Censi, Luciana A Castroneves, Akihiro Sakurai, Minoru Kihara, Kiyomi Horiuchi, Véronique Dorine Barbu, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Pascal Pigny, Stephane Pinson, Nelson Wohllk, Charis Eng, Berna İmge Aydoğan, Dhananjaya Saranath, Sarka Dvorakova, Frederic Castinetti, Patocs Attila, Damijan Bergant, Thera P. Links, Mariola Peczkowska, Ana O Hoff, Caterina Mian, Trisha Dwight, Barbara Jarzab, Hartmut P H Neumann, Mercedes Robledo, Shinya Uchino, Anne Barlier, Christian Godballe and Jes Sloth Mathiesen

OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is a rare syndrome caused by RET germline mutations, and have been associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in up to 30% of cases. Recommendations on RET screening in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT are unclear. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation among MEN 2A index cases and to characterize the former cases.

DESIGN AND METHODS: An international retrospective multicenter study of 1085 MEN 2A index cases. Experts from MEN 2 centres all over the world were invited to participate. A total of 19 centers in 17 different countries provided registry data of index cases followed from 1974 to 2017.

RESULTS: Ten cases presented with PHPT as their first manifestation of MEN 2A, yielding a prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.6). 9/10 cases were diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in relation to parathyroid surgery and 1/10 was diagnosed 15 years after parathyroid surgery. 7/9 cases with full TNM data were node-positive at MTC diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the prevalence of MEN 2A index cases that present with PHPT as their first manifestation is very low. The majority of index cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation, have synchronous MTC, often node-positive. Thus, our observations suggest that not performing RET mutation analysis in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT would result in an extremely low false negative rate, if no other MEN 2A component, specifically MTC, are found during work up or resection of PHPT.