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Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras

necrosis factor α (TNF-α) play an important role in the maturation and migration of LCs ( 14 ). In addition, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, interferon-γ, CD-40 ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin

Open access

Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

, 84 ). Osteocytes coordinate osteoblast and osteoclast function via secretion of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin and the promoter of osteoclastogenesis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), respectively ( 85 , 86 ). In vitro , high concentration

Open access

Lin Ji, Huan-Tong Wu, Xiao-Yan Qin and Rongfeng Lan

indicate an increase of bone turnover ( 15 ). BMD is regulated by a balance between two sequential cellular events, which are bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. The expression level of receptor activator for NF-κB ligand

Open access

Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) involves many organ systems. At the skeletal level, GCs stimulate osteoclastogenesis and profoundly inhibit bone formation ( 3 , 4 ). While an increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG