metastasizes locally to hilar lymph nodes, and also distally to other organs ( 5 ). Regarding the management of pulmonary carcinoids, Caplin and coworkers ( 6 ) have published a recent European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society expert consensus with
Samira M Sadowski, Emanuel Christ, Benoit Bédat, Attila Kollár, Wolfram Karenovics, Aurel Perren, Frédéric Triponez and on behalf of the SwissNET registry
Tiina Vesterinen, Teijo Kuopio, Maarit Ahtiainen, Aija Knuuttila, Harri Mustonen, Kaisa Salmenkivi, Johanna Arola and Caj Haglund
Introduction Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors are low- and intermediate-grade neoplasms that are subdivided into typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) based on the mitotic count and presence of necrosis ( 1 ). PCs belong to
Richard P Steeds, Vandana Sagar, Shishir Shetty, Tessa Oelofse, Harjot Singh, Raheel Ahmad, Elizabeth Bradley, Rachel Moore, Suzanne Vickrage, Stacey Smith, Ivan Yim, Yasir S Elhassan, Hema Venkataraman, John Ayuk, Stephen Rooney and Tahir Shah
Bhabra MS Steeds RP . Transcatheter pulmonary and tricuspid valve-in-valve replacement for bioprosthesis degeneration in carcinoid heart disease . European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging 2016 114 . ( https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jev279
Filippo Ceccato, Diego Cecchin, Michele Gregianin, Giacomo Ricci, Cristina Campi, Filippo Crimì, Marta Bergamo, Annibale Versari, Carmelo Lacognata, Federico Rea, Mattia Barbot and Carla Scaroni
Introduction and Aim: Ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) is mostly secondary to thoracic/abdominal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), or small cell-lung carcinoma (SCLC). We studied the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) with 68Ga-Dota derivatives (68Ga-SSTR) positron emission tomography (PET) in localizing ACTH-secreting tumor in patients with EAS.
Materials and Methods: 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT was performed and compared with the nearest enhanced CT in 18 cases (16 primary and 2 recurrent neoplasms). Unspecific, indeterminate and false positive uptakes were assessed using conventional imaging, follow-up or histology.
Results: We diagnosed 13 thoracic (9 primary and 2 recurrent bronchial carcinoids, 2 SCLCs) and 1 abdominal (pancreatic NET) tumors. 8 ACTH-secreting tumors were promptly identified at EAS diagnosis ('overt', 4 pulmonary carcinoids with 2 recurrences, and 2 SCLC); 6 EAS have been discovered during the subsequent follow-up ('covert', 5 bronchial carcinoids and 1 pancreatic NET). At the time of EAS diagnosis, imaging was able to correctly detect the ACTH-secreting tumour in 8/18 cases (6 new diagnosis and 2 recurrences). During the follow-up, 6 out of initially 10 'occult' cases became 'covert'. At last available follow-up, CT and 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT were able to diagnose respectively 11/18 and 12/18 ACTH-secreting tumours (respectively 11/14 and 12/14 considering only overt and covert cases). 4 cases have never been localized by conventional or nuclear imaging ('occult' EAS), despite an average follow up of 5 years.
Conclusions: The 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT is useful in localizing EAS, especially to enhance positive prediction of the suggestive CT lesions and to detect occult neoplasms.
B C M Hermans, J L Derks, H J M Groen, J A Stigt, R J van Suylen, L M Hillen, E C van den Broek, E J M Speel and A-M C Dingemans
alterations between atypical carcinoid and LCNEC for TP53 , RB1 and MEN1 ( 7 , 9 ). Figure 1 Ki-67 proliferation indices (PIs) in the spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms. Carcinoids have a Ki-67 PI ≤20%, whereas LCNEC and SCLC generally
Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland
. Patients were required to have a second visit within 6 months of initial presentation for inclusion in the database. The following rare tumor types were excluded: poorly differentiated pulmonary tumors, high-grade pulmonary or bronchial carcinoids, tumors
Majunath R Goroshi, Swati S Jadhav, Anurag R Lila, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Shruti Khare, Chaitanya G Yerawar, Priya Hira, Uday Phadke, Hina Shah, Vikram R Lele, Gaurav Malhotra, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah
# 0 3 (lung nodules)** 0 0 107 53 NA – Bilateral adrenalectomy ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; LDDS, low-dose dexamethasone suppression; BPC, bronchopulmonary carcinoid; DIPNECH, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine
M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head and J V Conaglen
with EAS. The most common are those of neuroendocrine origin, namely small-cell lung carcinoma (3.3–50%), bronchial carcinoid (4.8–38.9%), thymic carcinoid (4.7–10.6%), medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (1.9–11.6%), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine
Giulia Bresciani, Angeliki Ditsiou, Chiara Cilibrasi, Viviana Vella, Federico Rea, Marco Schiavon, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Georgios Giamas, Maria Chiara Zatelli and Teresa Gagliano
malignancies originating from different parts of the human body. More than one half (about 70%) occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, while the other 25% occurs mostly in the broncho-pulmonary system ( 3 , 4 ). NENs that affect the bronchial tree are called
E T Aristizabal Prada and C J Auernhammer
expression, suppressed cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest because of a p21 and p27 increase and a cyclin D1 degradation in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal and pulmonary carcinoid cells in vitro ( 172 ). In addition, VPA also suppressed growth of