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Nandini Shankara Narayana, Lam P Ly, Veena Jayadev, Carolyn Fennell, Sasha Savkovic, Ann J Conway, and David J Handelsman

data of patients. Men were divided into primary (hypergonadotrophic), secondary (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism or transmen groups with the causes of hypogonadism described previously ( 14 ). Injections were administered by experienced nurses

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Shruti Khare, Anurag R Lila, Hiren Patt, Chaitanya Yerawar, Manjunath Goroshi, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini S Shah

=45/50) had resumption of regular menses. In the male patients where baseline biochemistry was available, 62.5% ( n =20/32) had recovery of hypogonadism i.e., normalisation of testosterone. Twelve patients who were referred post-primary TSS had

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Rui-yi Tang, Rong Chen, Miao Ma, Shou-qing Lin, Yi-wen Zhang, and Ya-ping Wang

Introduction Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is also known as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This rare clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by complete or partial pubertal failure, which

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Luca Persani, Martine Cools, Stamatina Ioakim, S Faisal Ahmed, Silvia Andonova, Magdalena Avbelj-Stefanija, Federico Baronio, Jerome Bouligand, Hennie T Bruggenwirth, Justin H Davies, Elfride De Baere, Iveta Dzivite-Krisane, Paula Fernandez-Alvarez, Alexander Gheldof, Claudia Giavoli, Claus H Gravholt, Olaf Hiort, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Anders Juul, Csilla Krausz, Kristina Lagerstedt-Robinson, Ruth McGowan, Uta Neumann, Antonio Novelli, Xavier Peyrassol, Leonidas A Phylactou, Julia Rohayem, Philippe Touraine, Dineke Westra, Valeria Vezzoli, and Raffaella Rossetti

hypogonadism (CHH) or unexplained 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). These conditions are rare, with variable and complex aetiology, and their differential diagnosis using only clinical and biochemical parameters may be difficult ( 3 ). Therefore, NGS

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Milou Cecilia Madsen, Martin den Heijer, Claudia Pees, Nienke R Biermasz, and Leontine E H Bakker

concentrations in males can lead to a clinical syndrome known as male hypogonadism. This can be caused by testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or central, pituitary, or hypothalamic disease (secondary hypogonadism). Causes can be genetic, like in Klinefelter

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L M Mongioì, R A Condorelli, S La Vignera, and A E Calogero

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a disease caused by either primary adrenal failure (Addison’s disease, over 90% due to autoimmune adrenalitis) ( 1 ) or by hypothalamic–pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis alone or in

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Amar Osmancevic, Kristin Ottarsdottir, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad, and Bledar Daka

Bartfai G Boonen S Casanueva FF Giwercman A , Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing Study . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010 95 1810 – 1818

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Mikkel Andreassen, Anders Juul, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, and Niels Jørgensen

gonadotropins have been documented in other clinical conditions such as anorexia nervosa ( 34 ), polycystic ovarian disease ( 35 ) and primary male hypogonadism ( 36 ). Thus, as for TSH, immunoreactive FSH and LH may not reflect FSH and LH bioactivity in

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Catarina I Gonçalves, José M Aragüés, Margarida Bastos, Luísa Barros, Nuno Vicente, Davide Carvalho, and Manuel C Lemos

Introduction Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterised by partial or complete lack of pubertal development, secondary to deficient gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion ( 1 ). Diagnosis is

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Jin Kyu Oh, Young Jae Im, Kwanjin Park, and Jae-Seung Paick

gonadotropin-induced testosterone levels during organogenesis ( 1 ). Among patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, functional deficiencies are more frequently associated with foetal luteinising hormone than with disorders of sexual differentiation. Less