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Anette Lundqvist, Herbert Sandström, and Torbjörn Bäckström

Introduction Maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a condition that increases the risk of several complications for both the mother and the growing fetus, with a risk that the fetus will suffer from a suboptimal

Open access

Caio Jordão Teixeira, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Alex Rafacho, Gabriel Forato Anhe, and Silvana Bordin

hyperglycemia in nondiabetic women ( 3 , 4 ). Concordantly, experiments with rats showed that exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) during the last third of pregnancy impaired maternal glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo , leading to glucose intolerance prior

Open access

Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis, and Chen Chen

Introduction Successful pregnancy requires major physiological adaptations in the mother to support pregnancy, and the attachment, implantation, growth and function of the placental interface between mother and foetus ( 1 ). Growth hormone (GH

Open access

Yessica Agudelo-Zapata, Luis Miguel Maldonado-Acosta, Héctor Fabio Sandoval-Alzate, Natalia Elvira Poveda, María Fernanda Garcés, Jonathan Alexander Cortés-Vásquez, Andrés Felipe Linares-Vaca, Carlos Alejandro Mancera-Rodríguez, Shahar Alexandra Perea-Ariza, Karen Yuliana Ramírez-Iriarte, Camilo Andrés Castro-Saldarriaga, Juan Manuel Arteaga-Diaz, Roberto Franco-Vega, Edith Ángel-Müller, Arturo José Parada-Baños, and Jorge E Caminos

Introduction There is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency during pregnancy ( 1 ). In the United States, a prevalence of 33% has been reported, while in countries such as Turkey, the prevalence reaches 90% ( 1 ). 25OHD

Open access

Stine Linding Andersen, Louise Knøsgaard, Aase Handberg, Peter Vestergaard, and Stig Andersen

Introduction Maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is a debated matter ( 1 , 2 ). The role of thyroid hormones in fetal brain development has long drawn ample attention to the potential adverse consequences of abnormal maternal thyroid

Open access

Leqi He, Xiaoying Li, Zaoping Chen, Wei Wang, Kai Wang, Xinmei Huang, Qian Yang, Wencai Ke, Jun Liu, and Bingbing Zha

Introduction Pregnancy is a unique period of female life when a series of hormone changes jointly regulate thyroid function. Maternal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels peak at 30,000–100,000 U/L in the eighth to tenth week of gestation

Open access

Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen

predominantly occurs in female patients and in the reproductive time span, the management of the disease should consider the patient’s reproductive history and the possibility of a current or future pregnancy ( 1 , 2 ). GD is an autoimmune disease caused by

Open access

Laszlo Samson, Ildiko Hircsu, Monika Katko, Miklos Bodor, Annamaria Gazdag, Andrea Anett Gazso, Bela Kovacs, Janos Posta, Eszter Balogh, Peter Mocsary, Harjit Pal Bhattoa, and Endre V Nagy

Introduction While the number of iodine-deficient countries has decreased worldwide, mild iodine deficiency still exists in Europe ( 1 , 2 ). Adequate iodine intake during pregnancy is a prerequisite for thyroid hormone synthesis and is

Open access

Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Thiago Pantaleão, Vânia Maria Corrêa da Costa, and Maria Tereza Nunes

thyroid disorders ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). It is worth noting that the daily requirement of iodine consumption increases to 200–250 µg during pregnancy and lactation, in order to guarantee normal maternal thyroid function ( 13 ). Indeed, adequate maternal TH

Open access

Julia Modesto Vicente, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Caio Jordão Teixeira, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Fabiola Sales Furtuoso, Isabel Gouveia Adabo, Fabio Takeo Sato, Marco Aurélio Ramirez Vinolo, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Silvana Bordin, and Gabriel Forato Anhê

insulin secretion ( 8 ). Experimental studies on this topic are rare but somehow concordant with the observational data. Female mice subjected to a history of pregnancy and lactation were described to maintain reduced glycaemia 6 months after delivery