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Xiang Hu, Qiao Zhang, Tian-Shu Zeng, Jiao-Yue Zhang, Jie Min, Sheng-Hua Tian, Hantao Huang, Miaomiao Peng, Nan Zhang, Mengjiao Li, Qing Wan, Fei Xiao, Yan Chen, Chaodong Wu, and Lu-Lu Chen

.1% may have had prediabetes, an important risk factor of overt diabetes and cardiovascular disease ( 2 ). Diabetes leads to complications that cause profound psychological and physical distress, putting a huge burden on health care systems ( 3 , 4 ). The

Open access

T Grimmichova, M Haluzik, K Vondra, P Matucha, and M Hill

department from primary care mainly due to suspicions of thyropathy, other endocrinopathy or diabetes. Patients with negative history of prediabetes or diabetes were screened for diabetes following the standards of the American Diabetes Association and the

Open access

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Jia Xiaojiao, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu

Background: We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials and Methods: A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes, group; and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of fibroblast growth factor 21. An arteriosclerosis detector was used to measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index. baPWV, ABI, and FGF21 were used to assess early arteriosclerosis.

Results: Significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, 2-hour insulin, and HOMA-IR were found between the NGT group and the prediabetes and new-onset diabetes groups. All the above except 2hINS showed an increasing trend. FGF21 was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the NGT group, and baPWV was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the other two groups, but no significant difference was noted in ABI. Age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, 2hPG, and FGF21 were positively correlated with baPWV. Moreover, BMI, SBP, DBP, FPG, 2hPG, and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with ABI. In addition, age, BMI, FPG, FGF21, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for baPWV, and SBP and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for ABI.

Conclusions: Patients with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes maybe have more significant early arteriosclerosis. The blood glucose level and insulin resistance index maybe the independent risk factors for early arteriosclerosis.

Open access

Charlotte Janus, Dorte Vistisen, Hanan Amadid, Daniel R Witte, Torsten Lauritzen, Søren Brage, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Marit E Jørgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine Færch, and Signe S Torekov

responsible for up to 70% of the postprandial insulin response in healthy individuals whilst being severely impaired in patients with prediabetes and T2D ( 5 , 6 ). Furthermore, GLP-1 responses are lower in individuals with overweight and obesity

Open access

Lilit Egshatyan, Daria Kashtanova, Anna Popenko, Olga Tkacheva, Alexander Tyakht, Dmitry Alexeev, Natalia Karamnova, Elena Kostryukova, Vladislav Babenko, Maria Vakhitova, and Sergey Boytsov

deviation degree Patients without glucose intolerance, who had passed the preventive outpatient examination. Patients with prediabetes (preD) (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance or the level of HbA1c from 5.7 to 6.5%. Patients with newly

Open access

Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Simona Ferjan, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan, and Andrej Janez

Objective

Long-term efficacy of metformin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) apart from in those with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes remains unproven. We aimed to evaluate the impact of metformin in overweight-obese patients with PCOS and normal baseline glycemic homeostasis.

Methods

A 10-year longitudinal follow-up of a retrospective cohort comprising 159 patients with PCOS defined by Rotterdam criteria, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and normal initial glucose homeostasis (age 28.4 ± 6.4 years, BMI 34.9 ± 6.6 kg/m2) that had been receiving metformin 1000 mg BID. Collection data contained 6085 time-points including anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters.

Results

After the first year body mass (BM) decreased for 3.9 ± 6.8 kg (P < 0.001) and remained stable during the following 3 years. Menstrual frequency (MF) increased to 3.0 ± 3.9 bleeds/year (P < 0.001) after first year to over 11 bleeds/year in the following years. The total testosterone and androstenedione decreased to 15.4 ± 47.9% and 11.3 ± 46.4% within first year, with further decrease in total testosterone and androstenedione to 37.8 ± 61.8 and 24.8 ± 40.5% at the fifth year of the follow-up. The total conversion rate to prediabetes and diabetes was extremely low throughout observation period. Less than 25% of patients continued with metformin for more than 5 years with further dropout to only 6% on metformin therapy at the tenth year of follow-up.

Conclusions

Long-term metformin treatment of overweight-obese women with PCOS and normal baseline glycemic homeostasis resulted in reduction and stabilization of BM, improvements of MF and androgen profile and low conversion rate to diabetes.

Open access

Ling-Jun Li, Izzuddin M Aris, Lin Lin Su, Yap Seng Chong, Tien Yin Wong, Kok Hian Tan, and Jie Jin Wang

/L and 2-h plasma glucose between 7.9 and 11.0 mmol/L ( 22 ); (3) pre-diabetes when either of the following present: IFG, IGT or HbA1C between 5.7 and 6.4% ( 23 ) and (4) type 2 diabetes (T2D) if fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h plasma

Open access

Milica Popovic, Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine Andrea Urwyler, Marc Yves Donath, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

/m 2 with nearly all patients having visceral obesity. Around 70% of the patients presented with chronic low-grade inflammation (defined by a CRP level of ≥2 mg/L). In study A, 86.3% of the patients suffered from either prediabetes or type 2 diabetes

Open access

Taísa A R Vicente, Ívina E S Rocha, Roberto Salvatori, Carla R P Oliveira, Rossana M C Pereira, Anita H O Souza, Viviane C Campos, Elenilde G Santos, Rachel D C Araújo Diniz, Eugênia H O Valença, Carlos C Epitácio-Pereira, Mario C P Oliveira, Andrea Mari, and Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira

femoral trochanters were measured. The W:H ratio was calculated, and BMI was obtained by the formula: weight (kg)/height (m 2 ). Prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis Current American Diabetes Association criteria were followed. Prediabetes was defined by the

Open access

Mauricio Alvarez, Oswaldo Rincón Sierra, Ginna Saavedra, and Sergio Moreno

service of the Central Military Hospital during 2017 were reviewed. We retrospectively identified patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or prediabetes who were treated with metformin for more than 3 months. Vitamin B12 levels were measured by