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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence 5–16% under different diagnostic criteria and across several ethnic groups, with exact pathogenesis still unclear ( 1 , 2 , 3

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder of reproductive aged women, which usually causes reproduction and metabolism failure ( 1 , 2 ). It often presents as hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia

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Shilpa Lingaiah, Laure Morin-Papunen, Terhi Piltonen, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, and Juha S Tapanainen

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with an estimated prevalence of 6–15%, depending on the criteria used for diagnosis ( 1 ). It is a heterogeneous disorder with

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Angela Köninger, Antonella Iannaccone, Ensar Hajder, Mirjam Frank, Boerge Schmidt, Ekkehard Schleussner, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus, and Hans Dieplinger

. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . Human Reproduction 2004 19 41 – 47 . ( ) 4 Fauser BC Tarlatzis BC Rebar RW Legro RS Balen

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Sanna Mustaniemi, Marja Vääräsmäki, Johan G Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Hannele Laivuori, Hilkka Ijäs, Aini Bloigu, Eero Kajantie, and Laure Morin-Papunen

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of GDM varies from 9% to 25% and the prevalence of PCOS varies from 5

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Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Justyna Płusajska, Wojciech Horzelski, Ewa Bieniek, and Andrzej Lewiński

presented in Table 2 . Table 2 Percentile distribution of insulin resistance indices in a group of 478 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Percentiles HOMA (95% CI) IRI (Belfiore) (95% CI) QUICKI (95% CI) McAuley (95% CI

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Małgorzata Kałużna, Agnieszka Nomejko, Aleksandra Słowińska, Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska, Katarzyna Pikosz, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, and Marek Ruchała

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition, affecting up to 20% of reproductive-aged women ( 1 , 2 ). PCOS is associated with significant hormonal, reproductive , metabolic, and psychological concerns. PCOS is

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Małgorzata Kałużna, Pola Kompf, Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska, Jerzy Moczko, Aleksandra Królczyk, Adam Janicki, Karol Szapel, Marian Grzymisławski, Marek Ruchała, and Katarzyna Ziemnicka

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation with features such as clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, oligo- or anovulation and a characteristic image of

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

Introduction After standardization of the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the hyperandrogenemic phenotype has been found in nearly 80% of patients ( 1 , 2 ). These hyperandrogenemic patients may have their androgen

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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman, and Helena J Teede

Introduction Following the recent release of international guidelines for management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 1 ) endorsed by 38 international organisations in 71 countries, the research, clinical and consumer PCOS communities