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Ladan Younesi, Zeinab Safarpour Lima, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Zahra Hosseini Jebelli, and Ghazaleh Amjad

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in humans, which affects five to ten percent of women in childbearing age ( 1 ). About 20 to 30 percent of women in reproductive age show polycystic

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Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani, and N Gupta

(OH)D level further inhibit the application of vitamin D intervention trials. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of 4–10% (9) . Women with PCOS

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Liza Haqq, James McFarlane, Gudrun Dieberg, and Neil Smart

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder, affecting 18–22% of reproductive-age women (1) . PCOS was first reported in 1935 by Stein & Leventhal (2) and is characterised by clinical or biochemical

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Line K Johnson, Kirsten B Holven, Njord Nordstrand, Jan R Mellembakken, Tom Tanbo, and Jøran Hjelmesæth

Introduction Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight and have a central fat distribution (1) . It is well known that abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and increased risk of

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Rosalie Cabry, Philippe Merviel, Aicha Madkour, Elodie Lefranc, Florence Scheffler, Rachel Desailloud, Véronique Bach, and Moncef Benkhalifa

use (especially in an occupational setting) on female reproductive capacity and certain female infertility diseases, such as premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and endometriosis. Furthermore, pesticide exposure might

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Angela Köninger, Philippos Edimiris, Laura Koch, Antje Enekwe, Claudia Lamina, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Rainer Kimmig, and Hans Dieplinger

.3275/7682 ). 8 Baillargeon JP Nestler JE . Commentary: polycystic ovary syndrome: a syndrome of ovarian hypersensitivity to insulin? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006 91 22 – 24 . ( doi:10.1210/jc.2005-1804 ). 9 Dunaif A Segal

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Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Simona Ferjan, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan, and Andrej Janez

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) brings significant heterogeneity of cardio-metabolic risk at the time of the confirmed diagnosis ( 1 ). Obesity, menstrual irregularity and hyperandrogenism are recognized as the most important

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Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse, and Paul-Martin Holterhus

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome that is characterized by features of anovulation (amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea) combined with symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) ( 1 ). The

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Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Sophie Ouzounian, Alice Benoit, Jacqueline Vadrot, Frédérique Tissier, Sylvie Renouf, Hervé Lefebvre, Sophie Christin-Maitre, and Estelle Louiset

. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of hyperandrogenism (1, 2, 3) . According to the Rotterdam criteria, diagnosis of PCOS is determined on the basis of chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of

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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman, and Helena J Teede

communication with the public and research funders. The name focuses on a criterion – polycystic ovarian morphology – which is neither necessary nor sufficient to diagnose the syndrome. We believe it is time to recognise the advances that have been made since