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Lára Ósk Eggertsdóttir Claessen Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Emergency Medicine, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Hafrún Kristjánsdóttir Physical Activity, Physical Education, Sport, and Health (PAPESH) Research Centre, Sports Science Department, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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María Kristín Jónsdóttir Mental Health Services, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Sigrún Helga Lund deCODE Genetics, Inc/Amgen Inc., Reykjavik, Iceland
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Ingunn Unnsteinsdóttir Kristensen Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Helga Ágústa Sigurjónsdóttir Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Medicine, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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( 43 ). The aim of this study was to explore pituitary dysfunction (PD) including HP in female athletes following mTBI in sport and, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to do so. Materials and methods Study design and subjects

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Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Endocrinology Department, University Hospital in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

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Łukasz Kluczyński Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Endocrinology Department, University Hospital in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

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Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Endocrinology Department, University Hospital in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

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are the most typical causes of brain injuries. Pituitary dysfunction resulting as a consequence of brain injury is not a new phenomenon – the first article illustrating the matter was published in 1918 ( 8 ). Nowadays, the topic is gaining more and

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H A Booij Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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W D C Gaykema Roessingh Rehabilitation Center, Enschede, the Netherlands

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K A J Kuijpers Roessingh Rehabilitation Center, Enschede, the Netherlands

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M J M Pouwels Department of Endocrinology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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H M den Hertog Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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-prevalence of pituitary dysfunction (PD) with stroke. As the symptomatology of poststroke symptoms such as fatigue and cognitive disturbances overlap with that of PD, the question raises whether there could be a causal relationship. If poststroke PD plays a role

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I M A A van Roessel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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J P de Graaf Dutch Pituitary Foundation, Nijkerk, The Netherlands
Department of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Endo-ERN European Reference Network on Rare endocrine conditions

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N R Biermasz Department of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Endo-ERN European Reference Network on Rare endocrine conditions

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E Charmandari Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Center for Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece

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H M van Santen Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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detrimental effects on the quality of life. Patients with HD may experience disturbed hunger-satiety and thirst feelings, decreased energy expenditure, behavioral problems, disturbed circadian rhythm, temperature dysregulation and pituitary dysfunction

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Rachel K Rowe Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Benjamin M Rumney BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK

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Hazel G May BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK

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Paska Permana Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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P David Adelson BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

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S Mitchell Harman Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Jonathan Lifshitz Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Theresa C Thomas Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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including food and water intake. Further studies are needed to measure metabolic parameters and levels of TSH and GH, and examine injury-induced pathology to the pituitary to determine if the chronic weight gain is a symptom of neuroendocrine dysfunction

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Nadine M Vaninetti Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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David B Clarke Division of Neurosurgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Deborah A Zwicker Cape Breton Regional Hospital, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Churn-Ern Yip Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Barna Tugwell Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Steve Doucette Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Chris Theriault Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Khaled Aldahmani Department of Medicine, Tawam Hospital in Affiliation with Johns Hopkins, AI Ain, UAE

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Syed Ali Imran Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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any dimension. New-onset SHD was defined as pituitary hormonal dysfunction during follow-up in a patient with a previously intact hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Worsening SHD was defined as further loss of one or more hormonal axes during follow-up among

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David S McLaren Department of Endocrinology, Leeds Centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

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Aarani Devi Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

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Nikolaos Kyriakakis Department of Endocrinology, Leeds Centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

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Michelle Kwok-Williams Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

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Robert D Murray Department of Endocrinology, Leeds Centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Leeds, UK
Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine (LICAMM), University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

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puberty, primary hypothyroidism, primary gonadal insufficiency, hyperparathyroidism, and low bone mass occur at increased prevalence in CAYA cancer survivors. Hypothalamo-pituitary (HP) dysfunction is one of the most frequent endocrinopathies resulting

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Clara Lundetoft Clausen Center of Research & Disruption of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark

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Åse Krogh Rasmussen Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Trine Holm Johannsen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Linda Maria Hilsted Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Niels Erik Skakkebæk Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Pal Bela Szecsi Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark

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Lise Pedersen Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark

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Thomas Benfield Center of Research & Disruption of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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alterations in the hormonal secretion from the thyroid gland ( 2 , 3 , 4 ). Studies have shown varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction among patients with COVID-19 infection with 5–20% being hyperthyroid and up to 5% being hypothyroid ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9

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Paraskevi Kazakou Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Stavroula A Paschou Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Theodora Psaltopoulou Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Maria Gavriatopoulou Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Eleni Korompoki Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Katerina Stefanaki Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Fotini Kanouta Department of Endocrinology, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Georgia N Kassi Department of Endocrinology, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Meletios-Athanasios Dimopoulos Unit of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Asimina Mitrakou Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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, 79, 80) Low TSH concentrations (77, 78, 79, 80) Hypothyroidism (78) Direct virus effect on follicular cells (89) Immune mechanisms (76) Euthyroid sick syndrome (76, 93) Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction due to edema and neuronal degeneration (76

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Rebeca Esquivel-Zuniga Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

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Alan D Rogol Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

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transfusions is one of the most common endocrine dysfunctions and is mainly due to iron deposition within the gonads and/or the pituitary ( 46 ). Delayed or prolonged pubertal maturation is common in those with thalassemia major who have excessive body stores

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