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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

pancreas. A small percentage of affected patients (<10%) are classified as type 1B, with no evidence of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis in these cases is considered idiopathic ( 1 , 2 ). The aim of this comprehensive review is to present updated

Open access

Elizabeth Yan Zhang and Bao-Ting Zhu

-1 cells or NK cells are also involved in the mediation of this immune response (9, 13, 14, 15) . We have recently shown that B cells and the formation of hapten-specific antibodies (Abs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hapten-induced CHS

Open access

Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras

approximately 1 case per 560,000 inhabitants ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). It is considered as an ‘orphan disease’ due to the paucity of information regarding its pathogenesis, clinical course, management and long-term prognosis. The adult form of the disease can develop at

Open access

Shane M Regnier, Andrew G Kirkley, Daniel Ruiz, Wakanene Kamau, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan and Robert M Sargis

to metabolic disease pathogenesis, it is well recognized that calorically dense diets are potent contributors to the observed increase in obesity and related metabolic diseases. In animal models, mice fed a high-fat diet are known to develop obesity

Open access

Xuechao Jiang, Yonghui Wang, Xiaoying Li, Leqi He, Qian Yang, Wei Wang, Jun Liu and Bingbing Zha

hyperthyroidism ( 4 , 5 ). B cells are the source of pathognomonic activating autoantibodies (TRAb) against TSHR in GD ( 6 , 7 ). B cells also present antigens to T cells ( 8 ). Although B cells are essential for GD pathogenesis, little is known regarding the

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

complicated and ambiguous pathogenesis. Many risk factors have been identified, such as obesity, genetics and early childhood growth patterns ( 4 , 5 ). Data from many studies suggest that genetics is very important in the development of PCOS. A Dutch twin

Open access

Lijuan Yuan, Xihui Chen, Ziyu Liu, Dan Wu, Jianguo Lu, Guoqiang Bao, Sijia Zhang, Lifeng Wang and Yuanming Wu

pathogenesis, the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1), a prostaglandin transporter protein, was among the list. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate the identified mutations and further look for other mutations in this

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Yiqiong Ma, Zhaowei Chen, Yu Tao, Jili Zhu, Hongxia Yang, Wei Liang and Guohua Ding

progression of DN ( 4 , 5 ), although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies have shown that abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function are involved in the pathogenesis of DN ( 6 , 7 ). High glucose induction leads

Open access

Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M De Souza and Daisy Crispim

, proliferation and death, which are processes involved in T1DM pathogenesis ( 2 , 10 , 16 , 17 ). Indeed, IL-1β and TNF inflammatory cytokines were reported to induce miR-21-5p, miR-30b-3p, miR-34, miR-101a and miR-146a-5p expressions in MIN6 cells and human

Open access

Mengxue Yang, Bowen Sun, Jianhui Li, Bo Yang, Jie Xu, Xue Zhou, Jie Yu, Xuan Zhang, Qun Zhang, Shan Zhou and Xiaohua Sun

pathogenesis of GD remains unclear. In recent years, numerous studies have proved that the interactions of epigenetic, environmental and immune factors play an important role in the development of GD ( 20 , 21 , 22 ). Among these factors, the infection factor