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Luigia Cinque, Angelo Sparaneo, Antonio S Salcuni, Danilo de Martino, Claudia Battista, Francesco Logoluso, Orazio Palumbo, Roberto Cocchi, Evaristo Maiello, Paolo Graziano, Geoffrey N Hendy, David E C Cole, Alfredo Scillitani and Vito Guarnieri

inactivating mutations of the MEN1 gene, encoding menin, an intracellular protein that interacts with transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation ( 8 ). Fifteen well-documented cases of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and one atypical

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Sara Storvall, Helena Leijon, Eeva Ryhänen, Johanna Louhimo, Caj Haglund, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti and Johanna Arola

Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease usually caused by a parathyroid adenoma (in 85% of cases) or by glandular hyperplasia (15% of cases). Parathyroid carcinoma is only rarely the underlying cause (PC

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Boju Pan, Anqi Wang, Junyi Pang, Yuhan Zhang, Ming Cui, Jian Sun and Zhiyong Liang

carcinomas ( 14 ), pheochromocytomas ( 15 ) and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms ( 16 ). But PD-L1 expression was significantly different among these tumor types. No studies have investigated PD-L1 expression in parathyroid adenoma and

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Felix Haglund, Gustaf Rosin, Inga-Lena Nilsson, C Christofer Juhlin, Ylva Pernow, Sophie Norenstedt, Andrii Dinets, Catharina Larsson, Johan Hartman and Anders Höög

with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as well as cancer (1, 2, 3) . Parathyroid carcinomas are very rare (<1% of parathyroid tumours), but today's oncological treatment regimens have only a limited effect (4

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Anping Su, Yanping Gong, Wenshuang Wu, Rixiang Gong, Zhihui Li and Jingqiang Zhu

carcinoma . Surgery 1993 114 92 – 96 . 8356534 15 Kikumori T Imai T Tanaka Y Oiwa M Mase T Funahashi H. Parathyroid autotransplantation with total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma: long-term follow-up of grafted parathyroid function . Surgery

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Maria Mizamtsidi, Constantinos Nastos, George Mastorakos, Roberto Dina, Ioannis Vassiliou, Maria Gazouli and Fausto Palazzo

glands (10%), double adenomas (2–5%) or rarely parathyroid carcinomas (<1%) ( 1 , 2 ). The wide spectrum of disease presentation is very important as different management strategies are in demand. There are data implicating specific genetic pathways in

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Elizaveta Mamedova, Natalya Mokrysheva, Evgeny Vasilyev, Vasily Petrov, Ekaterina Pigarova, Sergey Kuznetsov, Nikolay Kuznetsov, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Galina Melnichenko, Ivan Dedov and Anatoly Tiulpakov

typical onset in early adulthood, but it can occur at any age, and in about 15% of cases is caused by parathyroid carcinoma ( 4 , 7 ). PHPT is rarely if ever the first manifestation of MEN2A ( 5 ). The typical features of PHPT in MEN4 have not been

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Filomena Cetani, Chiara Banti, Elena Pardi, Simona Borsari, Paolo Viacava, Paolo Miccoli, Liborio Torregrossa, Fulvio Basolo, Maria Rosa Pelizzo, Massimo Rugge, Gianmaria Pennelli, Guido Gasparri, Mauro Papotti, Marco Volante, Edda Vignali, Federica Saponaro and Claudio Marcocci

and 2A, hyperparathyroidism–jaw tumor syndrome (HPT–JT), and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (2) . Sporadic PHPT is due to a single parathyroid adenoma in 80–85% of cases, multiglandular hyperplasia in 10–15%, and carcinoma in <1%. The

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Louise Vølund Larsen, Delphine Mirebeau-Prunier, Tsuneo Imai, Cristina Alvarez-Escola, Kornelia Hasse-Lazar, Simona Censi, Luciana A Castroneves, Akihiro Sakurai, Minoru Kihara, Kiyomi Horiuchi, Véronique Dorine Barbu, Francoise Borson-Chazot, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Pascal Pigny, Stephane Pinson, Nelson Wohllk, Charis Eng, Berna Imge Aydogan, Dhananjaya Saranath, Sarka Dvorakova, Frederic Castinetti, Attila Patocs, Damijan Bergant, Thera P Links, Mariola Peczkowska, Ana O Hoff, Caterina Mian, Trisha Dwight, Barbara Jarzab, Hartmut P H Neumann, Mercedes Robledo, Shinya Uchino, Anne Barlier, Christian Godballe and Jes Sloth Mathiesen

is divided into MEN 2A and MEN 2B with a point prevalence of 13–24 per million and 1–2 per million, respectively ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). Virtually all patients with MEN 2A develop medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), while lower numbers develop

Open access

Bekir Cakir, F Neslihan Cuhaci Seyrek, Oya Topaloglu, Didem Ozdemir, Ahmet Dirikoc, Cevdet Aydin, Sefika Burcak Polat, Berna Evranos Ogmen, Ali Abbas Tam, Husniye Baser, Aylin Kilic Yazgan, Mehmet Kilic, Afra Alkan and Reyhan Ersoy

serum calcium (Ca) levels ( 3 ). Accordingly, 85–90% of PHPT cases are caused by parathyroid adenomas (PAs), a type of benign tumour ( 4 ), with other causes including double adenoma (4%), multiple gland hyperplasia (6%) and parathyroid carcinoma (<1