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Jasmin Asberger, Thalia Erbes, Markus Jaeger, Gerta Rücker, Claudia Nöthling, Andrea Ritter, Kai Berner, Ingolf Juhasz-Böss, and Marc Hirschfeld

Introduction With an incidence of 28.2%, breast cancer represents the most common type of cancer in females in Europe ( 1 ). Oestrogen-dependent gene expression regulation is known to play an important role in the promotion and progression of

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Kirsty G Pringle, Sarah J Delforce, Yu Wang, Katie A Ashton, Anthony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, C Caroline Blackwell, Rodney J Scott, and Eugenie R Lumbers

HRT. Postmenopausal therapy with oestrogens alone predisposes to EC (IARC), which is sustained for up to 15 years after use ( 31 ). We do not know the nature or duration of HRT use in our cohort of women with EC. The use of oestrogen

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Sakina Kherra, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Filiz Mine Cizmecioglu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Mariam Kourime, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Sameh Tawfik, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamad Guftar Shaikh, and Malcolm David Cairns Donaldson

cryptorchidism and sex hormone replacement therapy. Patients and methods At the inception of the Glasgow PWS clinic in 1991, the focus was initially on diagnosis, separating PWS patients from those with other causes of learning disability and obesity by

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Jennifer K Y Ko, Thomas F J King, Louise Williams, Sarah M Creighton, and Gerard S Conway

is a benefit to bone density ( 7 , 8 ). Local vaginal oestrogen was used by 9% of women, often prescribed as adjuvant therapy for those who require vaginal dilatation. Oestrogen implants were previously a popular choice but only a few users remained

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Anne M Drewes, Maria E Møller, Rasmus Hertzum-Larsen, Gerda Engholm, and Hans H Storm

factors, hormonal levels, genetic factors and lifestyle ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). A well-known risk factor is the use of hormone replacement therapy, especially the oestrogen-progestagen combination, which increases risk compared to non-users ( 9 , 10 ). Tumours

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Xi Wang and Qi Yu

events, no increase in uterine volumes and no additional cases of torsion during the treatment or follow-up period. Other therapies have also been previously described. Fulvestrant, which binds to and rapidly degrades the oestrogen receptor, was found to

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Julia H Goedecke, Mehreen Tootla, and Dheshnie Keswell

), whereas circulating oestrogen deficiency, experienced during the menopausal transition, is associated with an increase in central fat mass (FM), which is reduced with hormone replacement therapy ( 2 , 3 ). Central or upper-body fat accumulation, which

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Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

.0008 ) 27595141 6 Tangpricha V den Heijer M . Oestrogen and anti-androgen therapy for transgender women . Lancet: Diabetes and Endocrinology 2017 5 . ( ) 7 Bretherton I Thrower E Grossmann M Zajac

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Felix Haglund, Gustaf Rosin, Inga-Lena Nilsson, C Christofer Juhlin, Ylva Pernow, Sophie Norenstedt, Andrii Dinets, Catharina Larsson, Johan Hartman, and Anders Höög

female patients. Without a reliable medical history, however, one cannot rule out a causal linkage to oestrogen levels or hormone replacement therapy. Results from epidemiological studies were indicative of an inverse association between PHPT incidence

Open access

Martin Zweifel, Beat Thürlimann, Salome Riniker, Patrik Weder, Roger von Moos, Olivia Pagani, Martin Bigler, Karin M Rothgiesser, Christiane Pilop, Hanne Hawle, Peter Brauchli, Coya Tapia, Wolfgang Schoenfeld, Cristiana Sessa, and for the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK)

therapy and not suitable for local treatment. Inclusion criteria were immunohistochemical oestrogen receptor (ER) positivity (≥1%) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positivity (≥1%); in all cases, the tumour had to be human epidermal growth factor receptor