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Hanbaro Kim, Ki Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, Shadi Alshammary and Song Cheol Kim

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms arising from the endocrine pancreas, with a reported incidence of <1 per 100,000 persons per year ( 1 , 2 ). However, the incidence of

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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from the many cells of the diffuse endocrine system, which possess unique functions and the potential for hormone production. As such, NETs represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable

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Elham Barazeghi, Per Hellman, Gunnar Westin and Peter Stålberg

Introduction Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) arise from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract, which are small and slow-growing (Ki67 proliferation index is often <2%) tumors with annual incidence of 1 per 100

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R C S van Adrichem, L J Hofland, R A Feelders, M C De Martino, P M van Koetsveld, C H J van Eijck, R R de Krijger, D M Sprij-Mooij, J A M J L Janssen and W W de Herder

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NETs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors which may vary according to their biological, functional, and clinical behavior (1) . Chromogranin A (CgA) and the Ki-67 proliferation index are

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Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer and Irvin M Modlin

indicators of tumor activity, but as this group of lesions represents a minority of NENs (<3–5%), its broad utility is limited. CgA is a constitutive product of the neuroendocrine cell secretory granule and is measurable in serum or plasma. It has been

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Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty and Wouter W de Herder

). Neoplastic effects of ghrelin have been reported as well including: cell proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis ( 17 , 18 , 19 ). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors characterized by the

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Chao-bin He, Yu Zhang, Zhi-yuan Cai and Xiao-jun Lin

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare and represent 1.3 to 10.0% of all pancreatic tumors. The annual incidence of PNET is around 3.65/10,000 people and it has been increasing over the last decades ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The

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Samira M Sadowski, Emanuel Christ, Benoit Bédat, Attila Kollár, Wolfram Karenovics, Aurel Perren, Frédéric Triponez and on behalf of the SwissNET registry

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs (LNET) represent approximately 30% of all NET ( 1 , 2 ) and account for 1–2% of all lung tumors. Lung NETs are classified into typical carcinoid (TC, low-grade tumors) and atypical carcinoid (AC

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Anna Malczewska, Magdalena Witkowska, Karolina Makulik, Agnes Bocian, Agata Walter, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Wojciech Zajęcki, Lisa Bodei, Kjell Oberg and Beata Kos-Kudła

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have increased in incidence with small intestine NETs (SINETs) being the most common and pancreatic NETs (PNETs), the third most common among gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs per the SEER database

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Merete Gedde-Dahl, Espen Thiis-Evensen, Andreas Myklebust Tjølsen, Kjerstin Skrede Mordal, Morten Vatn and Deidi S Bergestuen

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract arising from cells of the neuroendocrine system. These cells are known for their capacity to produce various peptides and hormones