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Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin and Andrea Frilling

Introduction Small bowel (SB) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are accruing significant clinical attention due to their increasing incidence ( 1 , 2 ) in addition to recent advances in their molecular biology ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) and treatment

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T Szarvas, B Jardin-Watelet, N Bourgoin, M J Hoffmann, P Nyirády, C Oláh, T Széll, A Csizmarik, B Hadaschik and H Reis

predominantly expressed in neuroendocrine cells and plays a role in the biogenesis of secretory granules ( 1 ). CGA may be secreted into the blood as a full-length protein or fragments after cleavage. While definite functions of CGA and its peptides have not

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Irvin M Modlin, Harry Aslanian, Lisa Bodei, Ignat Drozdov and Mark Kidd

Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Summit conference proceedings of 2008 identified that a critical unmet need in the management of NET disease was the absence of a sensitive and specific set of tumor

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Hanbaro Kim, Ki Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, Shadi Alshammary and Song Cheol Kim

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms arising from the endocrine pancreas, with a reported incidence of <1 per 100,000 persons per year ( 1 , 2 ). However, the incidence of

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Irasema Mendieta, Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Lenin Pavón, Alfredo Rodríguez-Cruz, Guadalupe García-Alcocer and Laura Cristina Berumen

Introduction Lung cancer is a leading cause of death due to cancer in both sexes worldwide ( 1 , 2 ). A primary concern of this disease is the neuroendocrine phenotype linked to decreased survival and increased peripheral tumour cells, drug

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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from the many cells of the diffuse endocrine system, which possess unique functions and the potential for hormone production. As such, NETs represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable

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Myrtille Fouché, Yves Bouffard, Mary-Charlotte Le Goff, Johanne Prothet, François Malavieille, Pierre Sagnard, Françoise Christin, Davy Hayi-Slayman, Arnaud Pasquer, Gilles Poncet, Thomas Walter and Thomas Rimmelé

Introduction Small-bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SB-NETs) are rare secreting neoplasms. Hormones (serotonin, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins and chromogranin-A) released into the systemic circulation can lead to a carcinoid syndrome (CS

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K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

Introduction Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of rare tumours, which have a relatively indolent disease course. Primary NETs can arise from neuroendocrine cells at various anatomic sites. They

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Kosmas Daskalakis, Marina Tsoli, Anna Angelousi, Evanthia Kassi, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Denise Kolomodi, Gregory Kaltsas and Anna Koumarianou

Introduction Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours with variable clinical behaviour and unpredictable prognosis. Their incidence has increased substantially in recent years, partly due to the development of

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Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman and Eduardo Arzt

aforementioned inflammatory mediators, thus propagating cellular inflammation (3, 4, 5) . However, return to homeostasis – in which the neuroendocrine system has a paramount role – is necessary, considering that if the inflammatory process itself is prolonged it