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E T Aristizabal Prada and C J Auernhammer

disease of NETs of the GEP system ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ), including molecular targeted therapy with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus and the multi-tyrosinkinase inhibitor sunitinib, has significantly progressed

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Emma Jernberg, Anders Bergh and Pernilla Wikström

activation by other factors, as extensively reviewed previously ( 6 , 7 ). Thus, the AR has for a long time been the main target in the treatment of advanced PC, and the combination of castration therapy with 1st-generation antiandrogens (flutamide

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Giulia Bresciani, Angeliki Ditsiou, Chiara Cilibrasi, Viviana Vella, Federico Rea, Marco Schiavon, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Georgios Giamas, Maria Chiara Zatelli and Teresa Gagliano

surgery that is not feasible in most of the cases due to metastatic disease ( 6 , 9 , 10 ). Therefore, medical therapies, including chemotherapy, radiation, drugs acting on hormone receptors and molecular target therapy, gain a key role in the clinical

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Kosmas Daskalakis, Marina Tsoli, Anna Angelousi, Evanthia Kassi, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Denise Kolomodi, Gregory Kaltsas and Anna Koumarianou

accurate pathologic and diagnostic tests, but also because of the increased awareness of these tumours by clinicians ( 1 ). NEN biology has also been clarified to some extent, paving the way for the development of novel molecular targeted therapies (MTTs

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N K Stepto, D Hiam, M Gibson-Helm, S Cassar, C L Harrison, S K Hutchison, A E Joham, B J Canny, A Moreno-Asso, B J Strauss, N Hatzirodos, R J Rodgers and H J Teede

anovulatory infertility) ( 5 , 6 ) and psychological (anxiety and depression) ( 7 ) impacts, representing a substantial health burden. Despite its high prevalence, the aetiology and ideal therapies for PCOS remain unclear ( 8 ). Insulin resistance is a

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Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano and Ramesh Narayanan

antagonists LHRH is a major target for ADT therapy. The hypothalamus–pituitary–hypogonadal (HPG) axis is important for the synthesis of testosterone by the testes ( 11 ). The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH) that stimulates

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Muthiah Subramanian, Manu Kurian Baby and Krishna G Seshadri

560 – 565 . ( doi:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000285 ). 5 Willegaignon J Sapienza MT Coura-Filho GB Watanabe T Traino AC Buchpiguel CA . Graves' disease radioiodine-therapy: choosing target absorbed doses for therapy planning . Medical Physics

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Deborah Cosentini, Salvatore Grisanti, Alberto Dalla Volta, Marta Laganà, Chiara Fiorentini, Paola Perotti, Sandra Sigala and Alfredo Berruti

predisposing condition of response to immunotherapy. Moreover, there is an increasing interest in combining chemotherapy, radiotherapy or molecular target therapies with immunotherapy ( 28 , 29 ) and of course also agents inhibiting steroid synthesis may have

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A H Ludwig-Slomczynska, S Borys, M T Seweryn, J Hohendorff, P Kapusta, B Kiec-Wilk, E Pitera, P P Wolkow and M T Malecki

metalloproteinases constitute molecular pathways affected by this therapy (reviewed in ( 6 )). Previous animal and human data suggested that it might act through modification of local gene expression ( 7 , 8 ); however, most of them focused on particular molecular

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Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer and Irvin M Modlin

regarded as not significant in influencing the choice of therapy. Irrespective of the individual molecular abnormality described, cell line models were considered unreliable for identifying and confirming the utility of any targeted agent. No consensus