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Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Andreas Lechner, Cornelia Huth, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Jürgen Scherberich and Jochen Seissler

Introduction The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, and chronic renal failure in metabolic syndrome may progress to end-stage renal disease ( 1 , 2 ). Kidney pathophysiological

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Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz and Heidrun Gehlen

Introduction Metabolic syndrome in humans was first described almost 50 years ago by Camus (1) , but there was little interest in this disease until the late 1980s, when it gained new attention as ‘syndrome X’ or ‘the deadly quartet’ (2, 3

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Nicolás Crisosto, Bárbara Echiburú, Manuel Maliqueo, Marta Luchsinger, Pedro Rojas, Sergio Recabarren and Teresa Sir-Petermann

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common familial endocrine-metabolic disorder that affects women of reproductive age, characterized by irregular menses, chronic anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenism ( 1 , 2 ). A

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Sandra N Slagter, Robert P van Waateringe, André P van Beek, Melanie M van der Klauw, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is nowadays frequently used to identify individuals at higher risk for future type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 1 ). Recognized metabolic risk components are abdominal obesity

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Maria Lola Evia-Viscarra, Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero, Evelia Apolinar-Jiménez and Silvia Quintana-Vargas

associated with long periods of physical incapacity and early mortality (3) . The risk factors for developing CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults are encompassed by the term ‘metabolic syndrome’ (MS) (4) , which is diagnosed based on the

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

.046). Table 2 Significant simple correlation between 17-OHPE concentrations and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with hyperandrogenemia. Variable Pearson’s coefficient correlation ( r ) P

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Annieke C G van Baar, Andrei Prodan, Camilla D Wahlgren, Steen S Poulsen, Filip K Knop, Albert K Groen, Jacques J Bergman, Max Nieuwdorp and Evgeni Levin

, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes ( 1 ). The gut incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), produced by enteroendocrine L cells and K cells, respectively, are intimately involved in

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Johan Verhelst, Anders F Mattsson, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Anton Luger and Roger Abs

Introduction It is now well-recognized that patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD), apart from experiencing a poor quality of life (QoL), present with an increased risk of developing a metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( 1 , 2

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N Bergmann, F Gyntelberg and J Faber

Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MES) is a cluster of risk factors including male adiposity, dyslipidemia, reduced glucose tolerance and hypertension. MES is highly prevalent and increasing in most parts of the world (1) . A meta-analysis has

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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

-/amenorrhea. Besides the clinical features of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, male-type baldness), oligo-/amenorrhea and impaired fertility, PCOS patients are often insulin resistant, obese and have metabolic syndrome, with arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia