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Piera Rizzolo, Valentina Silvestri, Virginia Valentini, Veronica Zelli, Agostino Bucalo, Ines Zanna, Simonetta Bianchi, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Antonio Russo, Liliana Varesco, Gianluca Tedaldi, Bernardo Bonanni, Jacopo Azzollini, Siranoush Manoukian, Anna Coppa, Giuseppe Giannini, Laura Cortesi, Alessandra Viel, Marco Montagna, Paolo Peterlongo, Paolo Radice, Domenico Palli and Laura Ottini

male breast cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics: results from a multicenter study in Italy . Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2013 861 – 868 . ( ) 23468243 6 Silvestri V Rizzolo P

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V Kenan Çelik, Sercan Kapancık, Turgut Kaçan, Selen Baloglu Kaçan, Serkan Kapancık and Hasan Kılıçgün

increased the risk of breast cancer by about 20–27% ( 3 ). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) states that breast cancer, the most common among women, ranks second among all cancer types in the world. It was estimated that there were 1

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T P McVeigh, R J Mulligan, U M McVeigh, P W Owens, N Miller, M Bell, F Sebag, C Guerin, D S Quill, J B Weidhaas, M J Kerin and A J Lowery

predominantly in females, and there is a significantly increased risk of developing thyroid cancer as a second primary malignancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) and vice versa ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Mutations in PTEN have long been known to

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Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano and Ramesh Narayanan

review. Prostate and hormone receptor-positive breast cancers share the common feature of their dependence on the respective male and female hormones for their continued growth. Both estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) are promoters of

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Zhen-yu Song, Qiuming Yao, Zhiyuan Zhuo, Zhe Ma and Gang Chen

Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant tumors in male. In 2017, American Cancer Society reported 161,360 cases of newly diagnosed PCa, accounting for 20% of male tumors. Furthermore, its incidence and mortality

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Tingting Xia, Hongru Sun, Hao Huang, Haoran Bi, Rui Pu, Lei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Ying Liu, Jing Xu, Justina Ucheojor Onwuka, Yupeng Liu, Binbin Cui and Yashuang Zhao

that this alteration might directly be a biomarker of the risk and prognosis of cancer ( 16 , 17 , 18 ). Recently, studies have focused on the role of AR in prostate ( 19 ), breast ( 20 ), hepatocellular, pancreatic and bladder cancers ( 21

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Enrique Soto-Pedre, Paul J Newey, John S Bevan and Graham P Leese

of overall cancer or breast cancer. The prospective Nurses’ Health Study (NHS and NHSII) and a meta-analysis of 7 observational studies reported an increased risk of breast cancer of borderline significance, with the latter showing a relative risk of

Open access

Renea A Taylor, Jennifer Lo, Natasha Ascui and Matthew J Watt

.8% per year, such that by 2025, 83% of males aged 20 years and older will be overweight or obese (7) . Linking prostate cancer prevalence and severity to obesity Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, accounting for

Open access

Wafaa M Rashed, Anas Saad, Muneer Al-Husseini, Ahmed Mahmoud Galal, Assem Mohamed Ismael, Ahmed M Al-Tayep, Ayman El Shafie, Mahmoud Ahmed Ali and Ahmad Samir Alfaar

mortality among cancer survivors. Risk factors for all adrenal gland malignancies are still not well defined ( 5 ). Advances in cancer treatment achieved along the last decades have resulted in increasing the survival in most pediatric and adult cancer

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Daiki Kobayashi, Nagato Kuriyama, Keita Hirano, Osamu Takahashi and Hiroshi Noto

have an approximately 20% increased risk of developing any type of cancer ( 3 ). Among diabetic patients, risk was reported for each type of cancer. For instance, previous studies have reported a higher risk of colon cancer (hazard ratio (HR): 1