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Yao Su, Li Chen, Dong-Yao Zhang, Xu-Pei Gan, Yan-Nan Cao, De-Cui Cheng, Wen-Yu Liu, Fei-Fei Li, Xian-Ming Xu, and Hong-Kun Wang

patients who are obese or have type 2 diabetes also have an imbalance in their intestinal flora ( 2 ). In particular, the composition of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes , the two dominant bacteria in the intestinal flora, change in these patients ( 3

Open access

Mengxue Yang, Bowen Sun, Jianhui Li, Bo Yang, Jie Xu, Xue Zhou, Jie Yu, Xuan Zhang, Qun Zhang, Shan Zhou, and Xiaohua Sun

lamina propria ( 9 ), whereas Clostridium IV and XIVa can induce colonic Treg cells ( 10 ), indicating that alteration of the intestinal flora may lead to a Th17/Treg imbalance in AITD. Scholars have proposed a classic molecular simulation mechanism

Open access

Ruixin Hu, Yanting Yuan, Chaolong Liu, Ji Zhou, Lixia Ji, and Guohui Jiang

-degrading bacteria emerge as the times require. The fiber-degrading bacteria can produce a large number of enzymes to depolymerize and ferment dietary polysaccharides, turning them into SCFAs that can be absorbed by the host. The energy supply of the intestinal flora

Open access

Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin, and Andrea Frilling

permission, from Modlin IM, Gustafsson BI, Pavel M, Svejda B, Lawrence B & Kidd M (2010) A nomogram to assess small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumor (‘carcinoid’) survival, Neuroendocrinology , volume 92 , pages 143–157. Copyright 2010 Karger Publishers

Open access

Lilit Egshatyan, Daria Kashtanova, Anna Popenko, Olga Tkacheva, Alexander Tyakht, Dmitry Alexeev, Natalia Karamnova, Elena Kostryukova, Vladislav Babenko, Maria Vakhitova, and Sergey Boytsov

. (available from: http://www.diabetesatlas.org/ ). 6 Eckburg PB Bik EM Bernstein CN Purdom E Dethlefsen L Sargent M Gill SR Nelson KE Relman DA . Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora . Science 2005 308 1635 – 1638

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K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar, and J G van den Berg

with metastatic small-intestinal NETs (SI-NETs), the carcinoid syndrome is common, which is characterised by diarrhoea, episodic flushing, bronchospasm and often carcinoid heart disease leading to right valvular dysfunction ( 4 ). Patients with non

Open access

Sayaka Kawano, Yukiko Kawagoe, Kenji Kuwasako, Satoshi Shimamoto, Koji Igarashi, Mariko Tokashiki, Kazuo Kitamura, and Johji Kato

. ( doi:10.2174/157340211799304770 ). 7 Ashizuka S Inagaki-Ohara K Kuwasako K Kato J Inatsu H Kitamura K . Adrenomedullin treatment reduces intestinal inflammation and maintains epithelial barrier function in mice administered dextran sulphate

Open access

Ashley K Clift, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Panagiotis Drymousis, Omar Faiz, Harpreet S Wasan, James M Kinross, Thomas Cecil, and Andrea Frilling

higher than in intestinal NEN ( 8 ) and GCC display a more aggressive biology to the extent that they must be clearly delineated from NEN ( 4 , 9 ). Such divergences in clinical behaviour are evident in the 5-year disease specific survivals with ANEN

Open access

Yu Lin, Yingying Zhang, Lei Xu, Wei Long, Chunjian Shan, Hongjuan Ding, Lianghui You, Chun Zhao, and Zhonghua Shi

( 34 ). Similarly, the neonates of pregnant women with GDM tend to have more mastadenovirus and papillomavirus in their intestinal flora ( 35 ). Mastadenoviruses have been identified as the strongest infectious agents contributing to obesity, and a