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Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

cascade had dramatic effects on insulin signalling and glucose tolerance (64) . Isolated muscles exhibited complete resistance to insulin and diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In addition, the lack of insulin signalling in double-KO muscle

Open access

N K Stepto, D Hiam, M Gibson-Helm, S Cassar, C L Harrison, S K Hutchison, A E Joham, B J Canny, A Moreno-Asso, B J Strauss, N Hatzirodos, R J Rodgers, and H J Teede

anovulatory infertility) ( 5 , 6 ) and psychological (anxiety and depression) ( 7 ) impacts, representing a substantial health burden. Despite its high prevalence, the aetiology and ideal therapies for PCOS remain unclear ( 8 ). Insulin resistance is a

Open access

Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Justyna Płusajska, Wojciech Horzelski, Ewa Bieniek, and Andrzej Lewiński

out. Though it is widely accepted that PCOS is characterised by insulin resistance ( 4 ), there is no consensus, either regarding the best method of assessment of insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS, nor in terms of the utility of such assessment for

Open access

Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng, and Petri Wiklund

substantially during puberty ( 6 , 7 ). Along these lines, low serum SHBG level has been associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in children and adolescents ( 3 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ); therefore, it has been hypothesized that SHBG

Open access

Sandra Pereira, Jessy Moore, Jia-Xu Li, Wen Qin Yu, Husam Ghanim, Filip Vlavcheski, Yemisi Deborah Joseph, Paresh Dandona, Allen Volchuk, Carolyn L Cummins, Evangelia Tsiani, and Adria Giacca

Introduction Obesity is characterized by elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) that cause insulin resistance in the liver and periphery ( 1 , 2 ). FFAs induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which occurs when misfolded or unfolded

Open access

Kristin Ottarsdottir, Margareta Hellgren, David Bock, Anna G Nilsson, and Bledar Daka

different cohorts including men and women, respectively, suggesting a causal effect. The mechanism behind the association between SHGB and type 2 diabetes is not fully understood, but may be mediated through insulin resistance ( 5 ). In a meta

Open access

Kristin Ottarsdottir, Anna G Nilsson, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad, and Bledar Daka

( 10 ). On the other hand, low testosterone levels increase the accumulation of visceral body fat, which increases insulin resistance. This is illustrated by the fact that body fat increases in men with prostate cancer undergoing treatment resulting in

Open access

Esben Thyssen Vestergaard, Morten B Krag, Morten M Poulsen, Steen B Pedersen, Niels Moller, Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen, and Niels Jessen

GHS-R is also located in peripheral tissues indicates that ghrelin also exerts direct peripheral effects (5, 6) . It has recently been reported that exogenous ghrelin causes insulin resistance (7, 8, 9, 10, 11) and induces lipolysis (7, 9, 10, 11

Open access

Jan W Eriksson, Reem A Emad, Martin H Lundqvist, Niclas Abrahamsson, and Maria C Kjellsson

Introduction Development of type 2 diabetes has been perceived as a process that involves progressive insulin resistance in muscles, adipose tissue, and liver and a gradual failure of pancreatic beta cells to secrete sufficient amounts of

Open access

Myrian Velasco, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Huidobro, Carlos Larqué, Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora, José Romo-Yáñez, and Marcia Hiriart

central obesity (based on the waist circumference), dyslipidemia (decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or hypertriglyceridemia), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and insulin resistance ( 5 ). MS diagnosis involves the presence