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B Fabre Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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G Maccallini Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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A Oneto Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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D Gonzalez Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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V Hirschler Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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C Aranda Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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G Berg Clinical Biochemistry Department, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Laboratory, TCba Salguero Laboratory, Hospital Carlos G. Durand Nutrition Unit, INFIBIOC, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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(associated with carbohydrate intolerance), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome in the population, particularly in children, all primarily due to changes in their lifestyle (5, 6, 7) . Insulin that is actively transported to the saliva from its

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Kathryn Lingen Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA

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Talia Pikounis Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA

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Natalie Bellini University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Diana Isaacs Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Introduction Brief history of insulin pens and evolution to connected pens Every person with type 1 diabetes requires insulin to live. Many people with type 2 diabetes also require insulin to achieve glycemic targets due to the progressive

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Xiaohui Qi Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of the National Health Commission of the PR China, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumor, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Ping He Shanghai Hospital Link Center, Shanghai Hospital Development Center, Shanghai, China

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Huayan Yao Computer Net Center, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Huanhuan Sun Wonders Information Co. Ltd, Shanghai, China

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Jiying Qi Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of the National Health Commission of the PR China, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumor, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Min Cao Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of the National Health Commission of the PR China, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumor, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Bin Cui Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of the National Health Commission of the PR China, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumor, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Guang Ning Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of the National Health Commission of the PR China, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumor, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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shown that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) are involved in the development and progression of malignancies ( 9 , 10 ). Insulin has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of several cancer sites, such as the liver, pancreas

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Bledar Daka Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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Thord Rosen Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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Per Anders Jansson Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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Lennart Råstam Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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Charlotte A Larsson Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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Ulf Lindblad Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 454, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

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, 10) . Moreover, in vitro studies have shown that insulin might inhibit production of SHBG in human hepatoma cells (11) , and in accordance with these findings an inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion has been reported (12) . In contrast

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Yusaku Mori Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan

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Eunhyoung Ko Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Rudolf Furrer Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Linda C Qu Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Stuart C Wiber Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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I George Fantus Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leadership Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Mario Thevis Center for Preventive Doping Research and Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany

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Alan Medline Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Pathology, Humber River Regional Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Adria Giacca Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Introduction Insulin treatment is life saving for type 1 diabetes and essential for achieving glycaemic control and thus preventing complications in type 2 diabetes. However, insulin has mitotic properties in addition to its well

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P R van Dijk Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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S J J Logtenberg Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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K H Groenier Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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N Kleefstra Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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H J G Bilo Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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H J Arnqvist Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands
Diabetes Centre, Departments of Internal Medicine, General Practice, Langerhans Medical Research Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Isala Clinics, PO Box 10400, 8000 G.K. Zwolle, The Netherlands

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Introduction Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are structurally and functionally closely related peptides. IGF1, mainly synthesized in the liver after stimulation of the GH receptor, plays a central role in cell metabolism and growth

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Ivar Følling Department of Endocrinology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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Anna B Wennerstrøm Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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Tor J Eide Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

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Hilde Loge Nilsen Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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important ectopic hormone is adrenocorticotropic hormone causing Cushing syndrome that adds to the typical phaeochromocytoma symptoms ( 1 , 2 ). Staining with anti-insulin was described in five of seven phaeochromocytomas ( 3 ). Other examples of ectopic

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Doron Weinstein
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Rive Sarfstein
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Zvi Laron Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

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Haim Werner
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are effectively used in clinical settings (2, 4) . The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has an important role in the normal growth and development of the prostate gland (5) . In addition to its physiological role, epidemiological, clinical

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L Ahlkvist
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K Brown Department of Clinical Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Biomedical Center, C11, Lund University, SE 22184 Lund, Sweden

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B Ahrén
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Introduction In fully compensated insulin resistance, there is a sufficient upregulation of insulin secretion whereas in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes this upregulation is inadequate (1) . Several mechanisms have been suggested to

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Jothydev Kesavadev Jothydev’s Diabetes Research Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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Pradeep Babu Sadasivan Pillai Jothydev’s Diabetes Research Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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Arun Shankar Jothydev’s Diabetes Research Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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Gopika Krishnan Jothydev’s Diabetes Research Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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Sunitha Jothydev Jothydev’s Diabetes Research Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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require insulin therapy due to inadequate glycemic control with oral agents ( 1 ). Metformin and sulfonylureas (SU) are the most commonly used oral antidiabetic agents. However, SU have a greater tendency to cause hypoglycemia and weight gain and hence

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