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T L C Wolters, C D C C van der Heijden, N van Leeuwen, B T P Hijmans-Kersten, M G Netea, J W A Smit, D H J Thijssen, A R M M Hermus, N P Riksen, and R T Netea-Maier

and metabolic disturbances that cause hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in acromegaly patients ( 6 ). Interestingly, CVD is strongly associated with subclinical systemic inflammation ( 9 , 10 ). Vascular wall inflammation is an

Open access

Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman, and Eduardo Arzt

proinflammatory mediators in order to remove the damaging agent and restoring tissue function and structure (1) . Biologically, inflammation advances through several stages. At the cellular level there is a marked response to proinflammatory stimuli, and as a

Open access

Henrik H Thomsen, Holger J Møller, Christian Trolle, Kristian A Groth, Anne Skakkebæk, Anders Bojesen, Christian Høst, and Claus H Gravholt

have been linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) , underscoring the important role of macrophages in initiating and propagating these conditions. Previously, we

Open access

Justyna Modrzynska, Christine F Klein, Kasper Iversen, Henning Bundgaard, Bolette Hartmann, Maike Mose, Nikolaj Rittig, Niels Møller, Jens J Holst, and Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen

GLP-1 exhibits cardio- and neuro-protection, together with inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis ( 6 ). An excessive inflammatory response can cause severe organ dysfunction ( 7 ). Increased blood glucose levels are frequently observed in septic

Open access

Helle Keinicke, Gao Sun, Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Merete Fredholm, Linu Mary John, Birgitte Andersen, Kirsten Raun, and Marina Kjaergaard

). Obesity is a central risk factor for developing NAFLD ( 4 ), and it is estimated that 39% of all adults worldwide are overweight and 13% are obese ( 5 ). NASH is a further deterioration from the steatosis characteristic of NAFLD accompanied by inflammation

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Ling Zhou, Ruixue Zhang, Shuangyan Yang, Yaguang Zhang, and Dandan Shi

. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the most effective components of stragalus membranaceus , and AS-IV is reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-hypertension, as well as improving immunity

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Karim Gariani, Geneviève Drifte, Irène Dunn-Siegrist, Jérôme Pugin, and François R Jornayvaz

toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sepsis (28) . FGF21 can also reduce the severity of cerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice (29) , further indicating that FGF21 could modulate inflammation. These findings highlight the possible role of FGF21 as a

Open access

Zhiwei Zhang, Hui Zhao, and Aixia Wang

). Inflammation and oxidative stress are two common targets for therapies against GDM. Placental inflammation and GDM have been closely correlated, and both of them play essential roles in shaping the fetal environment ( 14 ). Inflammation is highly regulated in

Open access

Liangming Li, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Shujing Liu, Fu Zhou, Ge Zhao, Yaping Li, Yuan Luo, Ziyi Guo, Weiqun Lin, and Wenqi Yang

that adipose tissue fibrosis is strongly associated with inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation causes insulin resistance, which in turn promotes inflammation ( 10 ). Adipose tissue mRNA levels of pro-fibrotic genes were positively correlated with

Open access

Wenqi Yang, Ling Liu, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Fu Zhou, Jinbao Chen, Qinghua Han, Meifang Huang, Xuan Tan, Qiuyue Liu, Qiang Pan, Lu Zhang, Xiaojuan Lei, and Liangming Li

the liver and adipose tissue ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). The beneficial effects of exercise on glucose homeostasis are well documented ( 14 ), and exercise has been shown to reduce adipogenesis, alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and improve the disturbed