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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

Reichenbach A Geenen B Kozicz T Andrews ZB. Ghrelin regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and restricts anxiety after acute stress . Biological Psychiatry 2012 72 457 – 465 . ( doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.03.010 ) 22521145 10

Open access

Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou and Mark S Cooper

. Circadian relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: failure of IL-6 to cause sustained hypercortisolism in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Open access

Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark and Li F Chan

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dictates the production of glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal gland. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

Open access

Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

are essential to the stress response driving both basal and stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) activation. Besides the hypothalamus, CRH is widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits of the brain where it functions as a

Open access

Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner and Christoph Henzen

route of administration, the varied systemic side effects of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids should be minimized, in particular the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis or the inhibition of osteoblast function. Even after

Open access

Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including

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Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Poll, Dorret I. Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J.j. Finken

Objective: Sex differences in disease susceptibility might be explained by sexual dimorphism in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, which has been postulated to emerge during puberty. However, studies conducted thus far lacked an assessment of Tanner pubertal stage. This study aimed to assess the contribution of pubertal development to sexual dimorphism in cortisol production and metabolism.

Methods: Participants (n=218), were enrolled from a population-based Netherlands Twin Register. At the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years Tanner pubertal stage was assessed, and early-morning urine samples were collected. Cortisol metabolites were measured with GC-MS/MS, and ratios were calculated, representing cortisol metabolism enzyme activities, such as A-ring reductases, 11β-HSDs and CYP3A4. Cortisol production and metabolism parameters were compared between sexes for pre-pubertal (Tanner stage 1), early-pubertal (Tanner stage 2-3) and late-pubertal (Tanner stage 4-5) stages.

Results: Cortisol metabolite excretion rate decreased with pubertal maturation in both sexes, but did not significantly differ between sexes at any pubertal stage, although in girls a considerable decrease was observed between early- and late-pubertal stage (P<0.001). A-ring reductase activity was similar between sexes at pre- and early-pubertal stages, and was lower in girls than in boys at late-pubertal stage. Activities of 11β-HSDs were similar between sexes at pre-pubertal stage, and favored cortisone in girls at early- and late-pubertal stages. Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity did not differ between sexes.

Conclusions: Prepubertally, sexes were similar in cortisol parameters. During puberty, as compared to boys, in girls the activities of A-ring reductases declined and the balance between 11β-HSDs progressively favored cortisone. Our findings suggest that the sexual dimorphism in cortisol may either be explained by rising concentrations of sex steroids or by puberty-induced changes in body composition.

Open access

Wiebke Arlt and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

is caused if the regulation of adrenal cortisol production by the pituitary is compromised, this can be the consequence of tumours in the hypothalamic–pituitary area. However, pituitary regulation of cortisol production is also switched off in

Open access

Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar and Michael Alvarsson

regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans . International Journal of Obesity 1996 20 291 – 302 . 5 Roy M Collier B Roy A . Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation among diabetic outpatients . Psychiatry Research 1990 31