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Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee and Akheel A Syed

gonadotrophin (hCG) ( 4 ), and TSH-producing pituitary adenomas. Graves’ disease, the commonest cause of hyperthyroidism, has an annual incidence of 20–50 per 100,000 population, a peak incidence between 30 and 50 years of age, and a lifetime risk of 3% for

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

Introduction Iodothyronines secreted from the thyroid gland – in particular triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) – are vital to the regulation of genes associated with cell metabolism and cell growth ( 1 ). Hyperthyroidism and

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Suvanjaa Sivalingam, Marianne Thvilum, Thomas Heiberg Brix, Laszlo Hegedüs and Frans Brandt

Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a common condition with a lifetime risk of 2–10% ( 1 , 2 ). Graves’ disease (GD) and toxic nodular goitre (TNG) are the most frequent causes of hyperthyroidism ( 2 ). GD is an organ specific autoimmune disease

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Aleksandra Krygier, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Dorota Filipowicz and Marek Ruchała

Introduction In the biochemical landscape of thyroid dysfunction, iron (Fe) homeostasis abnormalities are frequently observed ( 1 , 2 ). The prevalence of anaemia in overt hyperthyroidism was found to be higher (14.6%) than in overt

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Jan Calissendorff and Henrik Falhammar

1920s LS was given as a pre-treatment to thyroid surgery ( 3 ). It became the standard pre-operative treatment to control hyperthyroidism. However, with the development of pharmacologic agents blocking the thyroid hormone synthesis and radioactive

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Min Li, Ying Chen, Jingjing Jiang, Yan Lu, Zhiyi Song, Shengjie Zhang, Chao Sun, Hao Ying, Xiaofang Fan, Yuping Song, Jialin Yang and Lin Zhao

mainly expressed in the liver ( 1 , 2 ). Hyperthyroidism, a state of excessive TH, is characterized by increased resting energy expenditure, weight loss, reduced cholesterol levels, enhanced lipolysis and hepatic gluconeogenesis ( 3 ). Besides, recent

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Madalena von Hafe, João Sergio Neves, Catarina Vale, Marta Borges-Canha and Adelino Leite-Moreira

preventing heart failure ( 34 ). Cardiovascular effects of hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is characterized biochemically by low TSH levels and elevated free T4, free T3 or both. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism in the general population is 0

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Peter D Mark, Mikkel Andreassen, Claus L Petersen, Andreas Kjaer and Jens Faber

Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) is defined by the biochemical pattern of reduced or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid hormone levels within the reference range. SH is seen with increasing frequency

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M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta and A P C Takano

some examples of disorders that can lead to hyperthyroidism ( 16 ). In this context, overt hyperthyroidism is characterized by high levels of T3 and T4, and decreased TSH levels. However, the most usual type of hyper­thyroidism observed in medical

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Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

hexokinase (HK) ( 9 , 10 ). The increase in glucose uptake observed in models of hyperthyroidism has been studied by many research groups, with a particular focus on the effects of THs on GLUT expression ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). However, little is known