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Jiayang Lin, Peizhen Zhang, Yan Huang, Xueyun Wei, Dan Guo, Jianfang Liu, Deying Liu, Yajuan Deng, Bingyan Xu, Chensihan Huang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yan Lu, Lijing Jia, and Huijie Zhang

hormone status correlates with body weight and energy expenditure ( 5 , 6 ). Hyperthyroidism is a condition that excess thyroid hormone promotes a hypermetabolic state characterized by increased energy expenditure, weight loss, reduced cholesterol

Open access

Shih-Rong Lin, Shih-Fen Chen, Yu-Cih Yang, Chung-Y Hsu, and Yu-Chih Shen

Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which excess thyroid hormone is synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland. The prevalence of symptomatic hyperthyroidism is approximately 0.5% and varies geographically ( 1 ). In Taiwan, the

Open access

Marek Niedziela

target tissues, such as hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, and Graves’ disease, are given prior to further description of the management of these challenging thyroid states. Hyperthyroidism (in Latin: hyperthyreosis ) is a medical condition in which

Open access

Thera P Links, Trynke van der Boom, Wouter T Zandee, and Joop D Lefrandt

Introduction Thyroid hormones and the cardiac system are closely related. This is illustrated by the fact that most characteristics and common symptoms of hyperthyroidism − such as palpitations, excitability, and perspiration − are the result

Open access

Xichang Wang, Xiaochun Teng, Chenyan Li, Yushu Li, Jing Li, Weiping Teng, Zhongyan Shan, and Yaxin Lai

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis refers to a clinical increase in serum thyroid hormones, including hyperthyroidism, thyroid destruction induced by thyroiditis and excessive intake of exogenous thyroid hormone ( 1 ). There are many types of

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Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen

Introduction Hyperthyroidism is the clinical state that results from an excessive production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland ( 1 , 2 ). It is a signature of the disease that the incidence of the different subtypes of hyperthyroidism

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Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee, and Akheel A Syed

gonadotrophin (hCG) ( 4 ), and TSH-producing pituitary adenomas. Graves’ disease, the commonest cause of hyperthyroidism, has an annual incidence of 20–50 per 100,000 population, a peak incidence between 30 and 50 years of age, and a lifetime risk of 3% for

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

Introduction Iodothyronines secreted from the thyroid gland – in particular triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) – are vital to the regulation of genes associated with cell metabolism and cell growth ( 1 ). Hyperthyroidism and

Open access

Suvanjaa Sivalingam, Marianne Thvilum, Thomas Heiberg Brix, Laszlo Hegedüs, and Frans Brandt

Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a common condition with a lifetime risk of 2–10% ( 1 , 2 ). Graves’ disease (GD) and toxic nodular goitre (TNG) are the most frequent causes of hyperthyroidism ( 2 ). GD is an organ specific autoimmune disease

Open access

Aleksandra Krygier, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Dorota Filipowicz, and Marek Ruchała

Introduction In the biochemical landscape of thyroid dysfunction, iron (Fe) homeostasis abnormalities are frequently observed ( 1 , 2 ). The prevalence of anaemia in overt hyperthyroidism was found to be higher (14.6%) than in overt