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M Ahmid, C G Perry, S F Ahmed and M G Shaikh

Introduction Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an endocrine condition that can potentially impact on an individual’s life from childhood, adolescence to young adulthood and beyond. In UK, the prevalence of congenital childhood-onset GHD (CO

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Kennett Sprogøe, Eva Mortensen, David B Karpf and Jonathan A Leff

in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion ( 4 ). GH and IGF-1 thus work in concert, with IGF-1 augmenting the anabolic actions of GH while opposing the hyperglycemic and lipolytic effects of GH ( 5 ). Growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which may be

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Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff and Michael Beckert

Introduction Hypothalamic–pituitary diseases and/or injury can lead to adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) ( 1 ). The decrease (or total loss) of growth hormone (GH) production, with a subsequent disruption in the hormone’s relationship

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Charlotte Höybye, Laia Faseh, Christos Himonakos, Tomasz Pielak and Jesper Eugen-Olsen

Introduction The adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) syndrome includes unfavourable levels of several well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as adverse body composition, cholesterol levels and inflammatory

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Thomas Reinehr, Martin Carlsson, Dionisios Chrysis and Cecilia Camacho-Hübner

height is lower than predicted height. The difference between predicted and achieved adult height depends on bone age retardation in CDGP ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). Since bone age is delayed in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) before the initiation

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Urszula Smyczyńska, Joanna Smyczyńska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz and Andrzej Lewiński

Introduction Growth hormone (GH) therapy is widely approved in children with short stature caused by GH deficiency (GHD). It has also been documented that GH therapy may be beneficial in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS); however

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Robert Rapaport, Peter A Lee, Judith L Ross, Paul Saenger, Vlady Ostrow and Giuseppe Piccoli

Introduction Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is widely utilized for improving height in children with growth failure and conditions in which it is efficacious, including isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD

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Anastasia P Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Matthias K Auer, Günter K Stalla and Mira Jakovcevski

, high doses of glucocorticoid substitution therapy and older age at diagnosis are the most consistently identified risk factors associated with increased morbidity and mortality ( 18 , 19 ). In addition, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been linked

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Ekaterina Koledova, George Stoyanov, Leroy Ovbude and Peter S W Davies

Introduction Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for use in the treatment of children with various aetiologies, including growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and born small for gestational age (SGA) with no

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Anna-Pauliina Iivonen, Johanna Känsäkoski, Atte Karppinen, Leena Kivipelto, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Auli Karhu and Taneli Raivio

), underlie maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis and autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency which, in some patients, expanded to multiple pituitary hormone deficiency ( 9 ). Intriguingly, KCNQ1 was shown to be expressed in mouse hypothalamic GHRH