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Luminita Nicoleta Cima, Anca Colita and Simona Fica

following HSCT results in a spectrum of gonadal function with varied clinical outcomes ( 5 ). Ovarian failure after HSCT has been observed in 65–84% of transplant recipients ( 5 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). In patients performing HSCT for hematological malignancies

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J Brossaud, V Pallet and J-B Corcuff

differentiation, and for the maintenance of some very specific cell functions such as photo-transduction. Vitamin A deficiency is a marker of malnutrition that correlates with infection and mortality in children and possibly in childbearing women. Vitamin A is

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Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka and Rod T Mitchell

treatment and gonadal function: experimental and established strategies for fertility preservation in children and young adults . Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology 2015 3 556 – 567 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00039-X ) 10.1016/S2213

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Lian Hollander-Cohen, Benjamin Böhm, Krist Hausken and Berta Levavi-Sivan

Introduction The brain–pituitary–gonad axis is a signaling cascade of hormones and their receptors that regulates reproduction in all jawed vertebrates. A milieu of stimulatory and inhibitory neuropeptides throughout different nuclei of the

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Bruno Donadille, Muriel Houang, Irène Netchine, Jean-Pierre Siffroi and Sophie Christin-Maitre

Leboeuf G Van Vliet G Simard J. A novel A10E homozygous mutation in the HSD3B2 gene causing severe salt-wasting 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency in 46,XX and 46,XY French-Canadians: evaluation of gonadal function after puberty . Journal of

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Anastasia K Armeni, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Dimitra Marioli, Vassiliki Koika, Euthychia Michaelidou, Niki Mourtzi, Gregoris Iconomou and Neoklis A Georgopoulos

Introduction Over the past decades, research attention has been increasingly paid to the examination of the neurobio­logical component of sexual function. Female sexual desire and arousal have been shown to have a heritable component of

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Rossella Cannarella, Teresa Mattina, Rosita A Condorelli, Laura M Mongioì, Giuseppe Pandini, Sandro La Vignera and Aldo E Calogero

, it is noteworthy that the absence of a genital physical examination (e.g. no information on TV) and of gonadal function (e.g. serum LH, FSH and T levels) in the vast majority of the studies that we reviewed may underestimate the prevalence of gonadal

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Teresa Vilariño-García, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Esther Santamaría-López, Nicolás Prados, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez and Victor Sanchez-Margalet

INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, obesity, and insulin resistance, that leads to subfertility. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein with signaling functions that is ubiquitously expressed, including gonads. Sam68 is recruited to leptin signaling, mediating different leptin actions.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of Sam68 in leptin signaling mediating the effect on aromatase expression in granulosa cells, and the posible implication of Sam68 in the leptin resistance in PCOS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Granulosa cells were from healthy donor (n=25) and women with PCOS (n=25), within age range 20-40 years old, from Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI), Seville, Spain. Sam68 expression was inhibited by siRNA method and overexpressed by expression vector. Expression level was analysed by qPCR and immunoblot. Statistical significance was assessed by ANOVA followed by different post hoc tests. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: We have found that leptin stimulation increases phosphorylation, and expression level of Sam68, and aromatase in granulosa cells. Downregulation of Sam68 expression resulted in a lower activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways in response to leptin, whereas overexpression of Sam68 increased leptin stimulation of signaling, enhancing aromatase expression. Granulosa cells from women with PCOS presented lower expression of Sam68 and were resistant to the leptin effect on aromatase expression.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the participation of Sam68 in leptin receptor signaling, mediating the leptin effect on aromatase expression in granulosa cells, and points to a new target in leptin resistance in PCOS.

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Willem de Ronde and Diederik L Smit

gonadotropin (hCG) is frequently used to start or maintain spermatogenesis and endogenous testosterone production. Although it is effective to stimulate gonadal function, it does not stimulate gonadotrophin production. It may actually delay recovery of

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M von Wolff, C T Nakas, M Tobler, T M Merz, M P Hilty, J D Veldhuis, A R Huber and J Pichler Hefti

role in the regulation of almost all bodily functions, becomes significantly dysregulated above a certain altitude. Several studies have already investigated various hormone concentrations at high altitude ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9