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Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) involves many organ systems. At the skeletal level, GCs stimulate osteoclastogenesis and profoundly inhibit bone formation ( 3 , 4 ). While an increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG

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Petar Milovanovic and Björn Busse

apoptosis by bisphosphonates and calcitonin . Journal of Clinical Investigation 1999 104 1363 – 1374 . ( https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI6800 ) 42 Weinstein RS Nicholas RW Manolagas SC . Apoptosis of osteocytes in glucocorticoid-induced

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Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner and Christoph Henzen

surgery. Furthermore, osteoporosis is a well-known side effect of systemic glucocorticoids, and short-term cumulative doses of 80–160 mg of methylprednisolone may also cause osteonecrosis (7) , a commonly overlooked complication. In the treatment of SSNHL

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Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Julia Schulz, Manfred Ventz, Kathrin Zopf and Marcus Quinkler

of GCs in PAI and CAH still tends to be more than the total daily endogenous cortisol secretion seen in healthy subjects (5–10 mg of cortisol/m 2 of body surface area/day) ( 1 ) possibly triggering long-term morbidities such as osteoporosis. GC-induced

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V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

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Sandra R Dahl, Ingrid Nermoen, Ingeborg Brønstad, Eystein S Husebye, Kristian Løvås and Per M Thorsby

sufficient glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement to suppress ACTH and adrenal androgen production without inducing glucocorticoid side effects ( 4 ). Monitoring of replacement therapy is difficult and lacks standardization in adults. Clinical

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Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Hiten D Mistry, Chandrima Roy, Bernhard Dick, Jason Waugh, Rebecca Chikhi, Lesia O Kurlak and Markus G Mohaupt

feedback control of glucocorticoid maintenance and an association with metabolic syndrome (10, 11) . Little is known about steroid hormone availability and metabolism during the early postpartum period in infants. Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol is

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Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras

microarchitecture and remodeling in glucocorticoid-induced and postmenopausal osteoporosis . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2001 16 97 – 103 . ( https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.1.97 ) 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.1.97 43 Makras P Alexandraki KI

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Stephen A Martin, Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Dawn A Olson, Adam J Branscum, Donald B Jump, Charles K Marik, Jonathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

facultative daily heterotherms and experience fasting-induced decreases in body temperature upon exposure to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone (26–34°C) ( 8 ). During the light photoperiod, when food intake and locomotor activity are reduced

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Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März and Marlene Pandis

will not differentiate between these isoforms unless otherwise stated. It has been roughly estimated that ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced production of vitamin D in the skin accounts for about 80% of vitamin D supply, whereas dietary intake (e.g. fish