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Anastasia P Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Matthias K Auer, Günter K Stalla and Mira Jakovcevski

, high doses of glucocorticoid substitution therapy and older age at diagnosis are the most consistently identified risk factors associated with increased morbidity and mortality ( 18 , 19 ). In addition, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been linked

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Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Claudio Marelli, Sharif Uddin, Pierre Zelissen, Robert D Murray and on behalf of the EU-AIR Investigators

within the KIMS database (a Pfizer International Metabolic database), prior to glucocorticoid hormone substitution ( 18 ). In that study, 1186 patients were receiving hydrocortisone (mean dose of 24.1 mg/day), and 52 patients were receiving prednisolone

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Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

recommendations and to minimize symptoms associated with over- or under-substitution of glucocorticoids and under replacement of mineralocorticoid. Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno and Hiroshi Wachi

glucocorticoid Dex and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induce the expression of aromatase in THP-1 cells ( 17 ). Based on these data, we used an in vitro THP-1 culture system to investigate the expression of aromatase in human skin monocytes. We observed a

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Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Julia Schulz, Manfred Ventz, Kathrin Zopf and Marcus Quinkler

mineral density in relation to glucocorticoid substitution therapy in adult patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency . Clinical Endocrinology 1996 45 707 – 713 . ( https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2265.1996.8620871.x ) 9039336 10.1046/j.1365

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Ingeborg Brønstad, Lars Breivik, Paal Methlie, Anette S B Wolff, Eirik Bratland, Ingrid Nermoen, Kristian Løvås and Eystein S Husebye

Mineralocorticoids Clitoris hypertrophy Glucocorticoids p.E140K Salt wasting 1 week old Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids p.P45L Simple virilising 4 years Glucocorticoids Clitoris hypertrophy p.V211M+p.V281L Simple

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V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

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Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Chiara Sabbadin, Miriam Dalla Costa, Giorgia Antonelli, Mario Plebani, Mattia Barbot, Corrado Betterle, Marco Boscaro and Carla Scaroni

). Furthermore, the clinical picture of SAI may be complicated by the association of other pituitary deficiencies, which could affect both HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment ( 5 ). A more severe degree of AI could characterize PAI, due to the impairment

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Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

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Arno Téblick, Lies Langouche and Greet Van den Berghe

anabolism and suppress catabolism in prolonged critically ill patients ( 16 , 22 ), the clinical outcome of infusion with GH secretagogues has not yet been studied. Also substitution with ghrelin has recently been investigated in smaller animal and in