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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, and Y Greenman

Introduction Ghrelin is a major regulator of food intake, energy balance and body weight ( 1 ). The active form of ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)1a ( 2 ). Since its cloning

Open access

Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul, and Sinan Cavun

mechanism of how GLP-1 agonists promote weight loss is not clearly understood. Ghrelin, which is a potent gut–brain orexigenic peptide, plays an important role in the stimulation of food intake and long-term regulation of body weight ( 6 , 7

Open access

Caishun Zhang, Junhua Yuan, Qian Lin, Manwen Li, Liuxin Wang, Rui Wang, Xi Chen, Zhengyao Jiang, Kun Zhu, Xiaoli Chang, Bin Wang, and Jing Dong

Introduction Ghrelin is a 28 amino acids acylated peptide, which was first discovered as an endogenous natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor(GHSR) 1α by Kojima et al . in 1999 ( 1 ). Ghrelin was first described to

Open access

Mardia López-Alarcón, Jessie N Zurita-Cruz, Alonso Torres-Rodríguez, Karla Bedia-Mejía, Manuel Pérez-Güemez, Leonel Jaramillo-Villanueva, Mario E Rendón-Macías, Jose R Fernández, and Patricia Martínez-Maroñas

stress, mindfulness may affect cortisol ( 11 ), which secondarily may affect some hormones involved in appetite regulation such as insulin ( 12 ), leptin and ghrelin ( 13 ). However, the results of these investigations are controversial ( 7 , 8 , 9

Open access

Esben Thyssen Vestergaard, Morten B Krag, Morten M Poulsen, Steen B Pedersen, Niels Moller, Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen, and Niels Jessen

Introduction GH release from the pituitary gland is considered to be regulated at the hypothalamic level by GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (1) . More recently, ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has

Open access

Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty, and Wouter W de Herder

Introduction Ghrelin is a gut–brain hormone that is produced predominantly by gastric X/A-like neuroendocrine cells ( 1 , 2 ). Ghrelin exists in two forms: acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). About 50% of circulating ghrelin

Open access

H Vlaardingerbroek, E L T van den Akker, and A C S Hokken-Koelega

. Figure 1 Neuroendocrine factors and interactions in the hypothalamus. In the gastrointestinal tract, multiple neuroendocrine hormones are produced. Ghrelin is the only gut hormone that stimulates feeding. Other hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK

Open access

Shin-ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, and Tadayoshi Miyamoto

glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin ( 2 ). The effects of exercise on these hormones have been investigated extensively over the past decade ( 3 , 4 ). Previous findings suggested that the concentrations of anorexigenic hormones

Open access

Chiara Mele, Maria Teresa Samà, Alessandro Angelo Bisoffi, Marina Caputo, Valentina Bullara, Stefania Mai, Gillian Elisabeth Walker, Flavia Prodam, Paolo Marzullo, Gianluca Aimaretti, and Loredana Pagano

cellular signalling cascades, enhancing growth factor-dependent cell proliferation and/or by directly affecting cell metabolism ( 11 ). Other factors potentially implicated in the loop linking obesity and IR to DTC could be represented by ghrelin, an

Open access

Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis, and Chen Chen

pituitary during pregnancy. Candidate placenta-derived factors that may increase GH secretion during murine and/or rat pregnancy include GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and ghrelin. Both murine and human placentae express GHRH and ghrelin ( 31 , 32 , 33