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Xiuzhen Hou, Junfeng Zhang, Hehong Ma, Ming Li, and Pei Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is primarily resulted from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance during pregnancy, affecting 7% of pregnant women globally ( 1 , 2 ). GDM causes higher risks of diabetes, obesity and

Open access

Zhiwei Zhang, Hui Zhao, and Aixia Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) manifests as various degrees of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. GDM has a high incidence rate and is by far one of the leading causes of neonatal and maternal mortality ( 1 ). The etiology of

Open access

Yusen Liu, Ruiwen Chi, Yujie Jiang, Bicheng Chen, Youli Chen, and Zengrui Chen

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the most common medical disorder in pregnancy, is defined as glucose intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia that begins or is first diagnosed during pregnancy ( 1 ). GDM is associated with

Open access

Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu, and Yiwei Wang

Introduction Insulin sensitivity during pregnancy is reduced with the advancement of gestation. Thus, the demand for insulin is elevated to maintain the common blood sugar ( 1 ). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose

Open access

Yao Su, Li Chen, Dong-Yao Zhang, Xu-Pei Gan, Yan-Nan Cao, De-Cui Cheng, Wen-Yu Liu, Fei-Fei Li, Xian-Ming Xu, and Hong-Kun Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, and the incidence rate is increasing every year and is currently approximately 17.5% in China ( 1 ). GDM is harmful to the long- and

Open access

Hathairat Rueangdetnarong, Rattanaporn Sekararithi, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sirinart Kumfu, Nipon Chattipakorn, Theera Tongsong, and Phudit Jatavan

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disease in pregnancy, characterized by abnormal blood sugar levels, leading to several maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes ( 1 ). Currently, the prevalence of GDM

Open access

Jing Wang, Leishen Wang, Huikun Liu, Shuang Zhang, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Zhang, Nan Li, Wei Li, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou, and Gang Hu

Introduction The worldwide rise in over-nutrition, sedentary life and obesity has resulted in a steep increase in the number of women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy ( 1 ). Nearly 7% of pregnancies in the

Open access

Ling-Jun Li, Izzuddin M Aris, Lin Lin Su, Yap Seng Chong, Tien Yin Wong, Kok Hian Tan, and Jie Jin Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are two of the most commonly seen pregnancy complications that adversely affect both short-term and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes ( 1 , 2

Open access

Xiujuan Su, Yan Zhao, Zhijuan Cao, Yingying Yang, Tony Duan, and Jing Hua

of a series of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placenta abruption and neonatal weight-related outcomes. Subjects and

Open access

Sanna Mustaniemi, Marja Vääräsmäki, Johan G Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Hannele Laivuori, Hilkka Ijäs, Aini Bloigu, Eero Kajantie, and Laure Morin-Papunen

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of GDM varies from 9% to 25% and the prevalence of PCOS varies from 5