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Milou Cecilia Madsen Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Martin den Heijer Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Claudia Pees Walaeus Library, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Nienke R Biermasz Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Leontine E H Bakker Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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treatment with intramuscular testosterone undecanoate in gender dysphoria and male hypogonadism . Andrology 2018 6 86 – 93 . ( https://doi.org/10.1111/andr.12435 ) 10.1111/andr.12435 12002444 36 Shankara Narayana N Ly LP Jayadev V Fennell C

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Silvia Ciancia Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Vanessa Dubois Basic and Translational Endocrinology (BaTE), Department of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Martine Cools Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Pediatric Endocrinology Service, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Introduction Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents experience a gender identity that is different from the gender assigned at birth and this often results in severe psychological distress, defined as gender dysphoria (GD). Although

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Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Katrine Hass Rubin Open Patient Data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Simon Bang Mohr Kristensen Open Patient Data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Øjvind Lidegaard Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Guy T’Sjoen Department of Endocrinology and Center for Sexology and Gender, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium

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Aisa Burgwal Department of Endocrinology and Center for Sexology and Gender, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium

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Malene Hilden Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Centre for Gender Identity, Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Marianne Skovsager Andersen Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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immigration rate to Denmark for persons with gender dysphoria. Foreign background was negatively associated with SES and mental health in transgender study populations ( 11 , 12 ). In addition, immigrants could have a higher rate of unemployment due to

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Brendan J Nolan Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Aviva S Frydman Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Shalem Y Leemaqz College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

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Meg Carroll Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Mathis Grossmann Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Jeffrey D Zajac Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Ada S Cheung Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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.2, P < 0.001) ( 27 ). Sleep disturbance was related to an individual’s distress, anxiety, and dysphoria related to their gender identity in a qualitative study ( 30 ). Psychological distress We report high baseline levels of psychological

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Lachlan Angus Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Shalem Leemaqz Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia

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Olivia Ooi Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Pauline Cundill Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Nicholas Silberstein Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Peter Locke Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Jeffrey D Zajac Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Ada S Cheung Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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oestradiol alone. Methods A retrospective audit of de-identified electronic medical records was performed of new consultations for gender dysphoria across two gender clinics in Melbourne, Australia: (a) Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, an adult primary

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Estelle Bonnet Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique, Bron, France

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Mathias Winter Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service de psychopathologie du développement, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Centre de biologie et pathologie Est, Service d’hormonologie, d’endocrinologie moléculaire et des maladies rares, Bron, France

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Delphine Mallet Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Centre de biologie et pathologie Est, Service d’hormonologie, d’endocrinologie moléculaire et des maladies rares, Bron, France

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Ingrid Plotton Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service Endocrinologie Moléculaire et Maladies Rares, Bron, France

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Claire Bouvattier Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN Université Paris Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Maryse Cartigny Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire Lille, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, Unité d’Endocrinologie pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Lille, France

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Laetiti Martinerie Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital Robert Debré, Service d’Endocrinologie pédiatrique Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares Endocriniennes de la Croissance et du Développement – CRMERC Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Michel Polak Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital universitaire Necker Enfants malades, Endocrinologie gynécologie diabétologie pédiatriques Centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance et du développement Inserm U1016, institut Imagine, Paris, France

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Anne Bachelot Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance et du Développement Centre de Référence des pathologies gynécologiques rares IE3M, Paris, France

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Frédéric Huet Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon-Bourgogne, Hôpital d’Enfants, Service de Pédiatrie Multidisciplinaire, Dijon, France

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Sabine Baron Centre Hospitalier universitaire de Nantes, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie, Nantes, France

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Muriel Houang Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Service d'Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Paris, France

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Sylvie Soskin Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, CHU Hautepierre, Service de Pédiatrie 1, Strasbourg, France

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Anne Lienhardt Centre hospitalier universitaire Limoges, Hôpital de la Mère et de l’enfant, Service de Pédiatrie, Limoges, France

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Jérôme Bertherat Groupement Hospitalier Universitaire de Paris, AP-HP, Hôpital Cochin, Service d'Endocrinologie, Paris, France

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Cyril Amouroux Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Service de Néphrologie et Endocrinologie Pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Montpellier, France

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Aurore Bouty Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service de chirurgie Uro-viscérale et de Transplantation de l’Enfant, Bron, France

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Lise Duranteau AP-HP, Hôpital Bicêtre, Unité de gynécologie de l’adolescente Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN Université Paris Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Rémi Besson Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire Lille, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, Service de chirurgie pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Lille, France

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Alaa El Ghoneimi Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP Robert Debré, Service de Chirurgie Viscérale et Urologie pédiatrique Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes de la croissance et du développement – CRMERC Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Dinane Samara-Boustani Centre Hospitalier Universitaire AP-HP, Hôpital Necker Enfants malades, Endocrinologie gynécologie diabétologie pédiatriques Centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance et du développement, Paris, France

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François Becmeur Hospitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, CHU Hautepierre, Service de chirurgie pédiatrique, Strasbourg, France

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Nicolas Kalfa Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Service de Chirurgie Viscérale et Urologie Pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du Développement Génital Constitutif Sud Institut Debrest de Santé Publique IDESP, UMR INSERM, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France

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Françoise Paris Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Service de Néphrologie et Endocrinologie Pédiatrique Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Montpellier, France

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François Medjkane Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire Lille, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, Service de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Lille, France

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Aude Brac de la Perrière Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Service d’endocrinologie, Bron, France

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Patricia Bretones Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique, Bron, France
Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France

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Hervé Lejeune Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service de médecine de la reproduction, Bron, France
Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France

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Marc Nicolino Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique, Bron, France
Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France

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Pierre Mouriquand Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service de chirurgie Uro-viscérale et de Transplantation de l’Enfant, Bron, France
Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France

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Daniela-Brindusa Gorduza Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service de chirurgie Uro-viscérale et de Transplantation de l’Enfant, Bron, France

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Claire-Lise Gay Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique, Bron, France
Centre National de Référence Maladies Rares du développement génital du fœtus à l’adulte DEV-GEN, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France

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J Cui Y Polak M Gong C . One hundred twelve cases of 46, XY DSD patients after initial gender assignment: a short-term survey of gender role and gender dysphoria . Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2021 16 416. ( https://doi.org/10.1186/s

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Miranda Scharff Department of Endocrinology and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Chantal Maria Wiepjes Department of Endocrinology and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Maartje Klaver Department of Endocrinology and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Thomas Schreiner Department of Endocrinology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

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Guy T’Sjoen Department of Endocrinology & Center for Sexology and Gender, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Martin den Heijer Department of Endocrinology and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Introduction According to the DSM criteria, gender dysphoria (GD) is defined as the incongruence between a person’s assigned sex at birth and the experienced gender ( 1 ). GD often has a strong impact on the person’s psychological wellbeing

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S R Ali Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK

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J Bryce Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK

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A L Priego-Zurita Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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M Cherenko Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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C Smythe Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK

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T M de Rooij Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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M Cools Department of Internal Medicine and Paediatrics, Ghent University, Belgium
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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T Danne Diabetes Center AUF DER BULT, Hannover, Germany

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H Katugampola UCL GOS Institute of Child Health, London

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O M Dekkers Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands
Department of Medicine & Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands

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O Hiort Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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A Linglart AP-HP, Université Paris Saclay, INSERM, Bicêtre Paris Saclay Hospital, le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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I Netchine Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Centre de recherche Sainte Antoine, APHP, Hôpital des Enfants Armand Trousseau, Paris, France

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A Nordenstrom Pediatric Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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P Attila Clinical Genetics and Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

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L Persani Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy
Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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N Reisch Endokrinologie, Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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A Smyth Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK

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Z Sumnik Department of Pediatrics, Motol University Hospital and 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

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D Taruscio National Centre for Rare Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

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W E Visser Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Centre for Thyroid Diseases, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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A M Pereira Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Amsterdam Gastroenterology Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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N M Appelman-Dijkstra Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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S F Ahmed Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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J & Papadopoulos FC . Validity of the gender dysphoria diagnosis and incidence trends in Sweden: a nationwide register study . Scientific Reports 2021 11 16168 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95421-9 ) 11 de Graaf NM Carmichael P

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Sneha Arya Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Sandeep Kumar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Anurag R Lila Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Vijaya Sarathi Department of Endocrinology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, India

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Saba Samad Memon Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Rohit Barnabas Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Hemangini Thakkar Department of Radiology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Virendra A Patil Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Nalini S Shah Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Tushar R Bandgar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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after weighing the adequacy of residual gonadal function to preserve fertility and avoid the need for hormone replacement and the potential for gender dysphoria against the risk of production of opposite sex hormones and missing the early diagnosis of

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Małgorzata Kałużna Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Pola Kompf Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska Heliodor Święcicki Clinical Hospital, Poznan, Poland

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Jerzy Moczko Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Aleksandra Królczyk Chair and Department of Gastroenterology, Dietetics and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Adam Janicki Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Karol Szapel Department of Physiotherapy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Marian Grzymisławski Chair and Department of Gastroenterology, Dietetics and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Marek Ruchała Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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Katarzyna Ziemnicka Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

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age are a more frequent problem than what has been shown in several previous studies. In a meta-analysis on the global prevalence of IBS and its risk factors, 55 studies compared IBS prevalence among genders. Overall, the pooled prevalence among women

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