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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

Introduction Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of healthy skin. Based on studies on older women, sex steroids in skin regulate the collagen content and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid ( 1 ). Estrogen-conjugated cream applied to

Open access

Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu, and Xi Dong

into two distinct types: Type I is estrogen-dependent and derived from endometrial hyperplasia owing to overexposure of estrogen, which occurs more frequently in young women and is related to obesity, early age at menarche, nulliparity, late

Open access

Shuang Ye, Yuanyuan Xu, Jiehao Li, Shuhui Zheng, Peng Sun, and Tinghuai Wang

Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER-2), and accounts for 15–20% of all breast cancers ( 1 ). Due to this lack of the

Open access

Jordyn Silverstein, Wesley Kidder, Susan Fisher, Thomas A Hope, Samantha Maisel, Dianna Ng, Jessica Van Ziffle, Chloe E Atreya, and Katherine Van Loon

studies have sought to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in colorectal tumor cells, results have been mixed. Earlier studies reported that 20–90% of CRC tumors express ER and PR ( 19 , 20 , 21 ); however

Open access

Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller, and Cynthia L Bethea

Introduction Like elderly women, old female rhesus macaques show a marked decline in circulating E concentrations ( 1 ), and several monkey studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of E or a selective estrogen receptor modulator

Open access

Maryam Iravani, Marie K Lagerquist, Elham Karimian, Andrei S Chagin, Claes Ohlsson, and Lars Sävendahl

Introduction Estrogen signaling is mediated via two nuclear and one membranous estrogen receptors (ER). Nuclear receptors ER alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2) are activated by the binding of specific ligands, followed by the activation of gene

Open access

Clarissa Souza Barthem, Camila Lüdke Rossetti, Denise P Carvalho, and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

function that is linked to decreased estradiol production. In this context, estrogens are used for hormone therapy to prevent the development of metabolic disorders ( 2 , 3 ). It has been shown that although estrogen hormone replacement therapy has many

Open access

Emmanuelle Noirrit, Mélissa Buscato, Marion Dupuis, Bernard Payrastre, Coralie Fontaine, Jean-François Arnal, and Marie-Cécile Valera

Introduction Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation and ovulation due to ovarian failure. The decline in estrogen and progesterone levels in women can lead to a number of bothersome symptoms. The most common include

Open access

Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Aneta Gawlik, Berit Kriström, Laura Mazzanti, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok, and Theo C J Sas

Introduction Girls with hypogonadism require estrogen replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain secondary sex characteristics, as well as to attain peak bone mass. These outcomes are achieved by starting with a low estradiol (E 2

Open access

Yali Cheng, Qiaoying Lv, Bingying Xie, Bingyi Yang, Weiwei Shan, Chengcheng Ning, Bing Li, Liying Xie, Chao Gu, Xuezhen Luo, Xiaojun Chen, and Qin Zhu

Introduction Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant genital tumors among females worldwide, with an estimated 61,380 new cases in America in 2017 ( 1 ). It is known that type1 EC is estrogen-dependent tumor. Sustained