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M P Schuijt, C G J Sweep, R van der Steen, A J Olthaar, N M M L Stikkelbroeck, H A Ross and A E van Herwaarden

to determine free testosterone levels. The possible use of free testosterone calculation during pregnancy, when estradiol concentration is substantially increased, is debated as SHBG is also able to bind estradiol with similar binding affinity (3

Open access

Arpna Sharma, Vijay Simha Baddela, Frank Becker, Dirk Dannenberger, Torsten Viergutz and Jens Vanselow

fluid and plasma estradiol ( 6 ). Elevated NEFA levels have detrimental effects on bovine GC ( 7 ). In human GC, saturated fatty acids (PA and SA) are known to induce apoptosis, causing potential reproductive abnormalities such as amenorrhea, which is

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Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Ester Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López Fontana and Rubén Walter Carón

reported to express mostly ERB after stimulation with estradiol (10–1000 nmol/L), with an induction of apoptosis dependent on the dose ( 6 ). With respect to estrogen receptor alpha (ERA), it has been reported that its expression is minimal in normal colon

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Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Aneta Gawlik, Berit Kriström, Laura Mazzanti, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok and Theo C J Sas

Introduction Girls with hypogonadism require estrogen replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain secondary sex characteristics, as well as to attain peak bone mass. These outcomes are achieved by starting with a low estradiol (E 2

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Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu and Xi Dong

cancer is often correlated with exceptional estrogen changes and estrogen-induced signaling ( 5 ). We previously verified that 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 expressions in endometrial cancer, which lead to the local E 2 synthesis in

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Lian Hollander-Cohen, Benjamin Böhm, Krist Hausken and Berta Levavi-Sivan

the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris . Recombinant tFSH and tLH were able to stimulate the release of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) from the testes, or the release of estradiol (E2) from the ovaries of tilapia ( 20 , 21 ). Recombinant stFSH and

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Clarissa Souza Barthem, Camila Lüdke Rossetti, Denise P Carvalho and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

function that is linked to decreased estradiol production. In this context, estrogens are used for hormone therapy to prevent the development of metabolic disorders ( 2 , 3 ). It has been shown that although estrogen hormone replacement therapy has many

Open access

Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh and Hyun-Ah Kim

Introduction Estradiol is a key factor for tumorigenesis and prognosis of hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Although estradiol is produced mainly by the ovary in premenopausal women, the adrenal gland and adipocytes are also

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse and Paul-Martin Holterhus

, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle

Open access

Katarzyna Wyskida, Grzegorz Franik, Tomasz Wikarek, Aleksander Owczarek, Alham Delroba, Jerzy Chudek, Jerzy Sikora and Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

the menstrual cycle in both ovulatory and anovulatory women. Additionally, in some ( 13 ), but not in other studies ( 14 ), the association between changes in plasma leptin levels and variations of both estradiol and progesterone release were observed