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André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

diseases and a consequent decline in reproductive function worldwide (3) . Given the short time frame, genetic changes cannot explain it. Thus, environmental substances may be accountable for the observed trends (4, 5) . Indeed, both humans and wildlife

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Vittorio Unfer, Fabio Facchinetti, Beatrice Orrù, Barbara Giordani and John Nestler

endocrine, reproductive and metabolic disorder, affecting at least 5–10% of the total population of reproductive-age women, worldwide ( 14 ). Independently of body habitus ( 15 ), women with PCOS manifest a 50–70% incidence of IR, resulting in a compensatory

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Josef Köhrle

authoritative review articles in all areas of endocrinology. Social media has become an inherent element of science communication in the 21st century; if you are eager to instantly follow novel trends, the latest endocrine information, or contribute to debates

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Malachi J McKenna, Barbara F Murray, Myra O'Keane and Mark T Kilbane

sunlight exposure have lesser dependence on oral sources. The recommended daily allowances specified by IOM in 2011 are between 30% and threefold higher than the 1997 recommended allowances (4) . Noting the trend for unsubstantiated claims regarding

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Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Stefano Christian Londero, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Bjarki Ditlev Djurhuus, Jens Bentzen, Sören Möller, Mette Gaustadnes, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Christian Godballe and the Danish Thyroid Cancer Group (DATHYRCA)

thyroid cancer in the USA . Endocrine-Related Cancer 2016 23 313 – 322 . ( https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-15-0445 ) 26917552 10.1530/ERC-15-0445 8 Randle RW Balentine CJ Leverson GE Havlena JA Sippel RS Schneider DF Pitt SC Trends in

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Cristina Lamas, Elena Navarro, Anna Casterás, Paloma Portillo, Victoria Alcázar, María Calatayud, Cristina Álvarez-Escolá, Julia Sastre, Evangelina Boix, Lluis Forga, Almudena Vicente, Josep Oriola, Jordi Mesa and Nuria Valdés

Introduction Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is a rare hereditary disease, with an estimated prevalence of 0.15–0.30 cases per 1000 in general population ( 1 , 2 ). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is its most common

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Hanbaro Kim, Ki Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, Shadi Alshammary and Song Cheol Kim

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms arising from the endocrine pancreas, with a reported incidence of <1 per 100,000 persons per year ( 1 , 2 ). However, the incidence of

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Kate E Lines, Mahsa Javid, Anita A C Reed, Gerard V Walls, Mark Stevenson, Michelle Simon, Kreepa G Kooblall, Sian E Piret, Paul T Christie, Paul J Newey, Ann-Marie Mallon and Rajesh V Thakker

BL/6 Men1 +/- mice were assessed by Chi-squared test for trend. Table 1 Occurrence of endocrine tumours observed in 12- to 26-month-old Men1 +/- mice in 129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6 strains. Tumours Strain P 129S6

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Ram P Narayanan, Bo Fu, Adrian H Heald, Kirk W Siddals, Robert L Oliver, Julie E Hudson, Antony Payton, Simon G Anderson, Anne White, William E R Ollier and J Martin Gibson

functional homology with insulin. They are ubiquitously expressed and play an indispensible role in the control of growth, proliferation and metabolism. IGF1 and IGF2 effect local and systemic responses through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms

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Adrian F Daly, Liliya Rostomyan, Daniela Betea, Jean-François Bonneville, Chiara Villa, Natalia S Pellegata, Beatrice Waser, Jean-Claude Reubi, Catherine Waeber Stephan, Emanuel Christ and Albert Beckers

Introduction Acromegaly is a rare, classical endocrine disorder that is due to chronic excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) that has a prevalence of 1 in 8000–14,000 of the population ( 1 , 2 , 3