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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents only around 10% of the diabetes cases worldwide, but occurs with increasing incidence much earlier in life. T1DM results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells of the endocrine

Open access

A V Dreval, I V Trigolosova, I V Misnikova, Y A Kovalyova, R S Tishenina, I A Barsukov, A V Vinogradova and B H R Wolffenbuttel

glucose anomalies in these patients are now known to include diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and have been discussed extensively in a review by Colao et al . (2) . Looking more specifically at

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E N Dudinskaya, O N Tkacheva, M V Shestakova, N V Brailova, I D Strazhesko, D U Akasheva, O Y Isaykina, N V Sharashkina, D A Kashtanova and S A Boytsov

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic noncommunicable disease that has reached epidemic proportions. Type 2 DM (T2DM) inevitably leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications that aggravate the course and prognosis of

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

Introduction The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with diabetes-related complications accounting for up to 60–70% of health-care costs related to diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). Besides the well-known renal and cardiovascular

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Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul and Sinan Cavun

Introduction Excess weight and weight gain are significant problems in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). Weight reduction is a critical part of type 2 diabetic patients’ management to obtain better glycemic control

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Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and François R Jornayvaz

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis may involve the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) ( 1 ). Common features observed in T2DM and metabolic syndrome, such as elevated fasting glucose, obesity, hyperlipidemia or

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Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease occurring in the pancreatic islets. The disease can affect people of any age, but onset usually occurs in children or young adults, which accounts for 90% of diabetes in

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Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu and Yiwei Wang

Introduction Insulin sensitivity during pregnancy is reduced with the advancement of gestation. Thus, the demand for insulin is elevated to maintain the common blood sugar ( 1 ). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose

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Sweta Budyal, Swati Sachin Jadhav, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Hiren Patt, Shruti Khare, Vyankatesh Shivane, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah

with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, osteoporosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) . As impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are important metabolic manifestations of CS, several studies have attempted to examine the

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Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M De Souza and Daisy Crispim

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by T lymphocytes and macrophages ( 1 ). The disease is usually diagnosed when over 80–90% of beta-cells have been destructed by