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Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Christine Dalgård, Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Sine Lykkedegn, Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg and Henrik Thybo Christesen

offspring systolic BP at age 9.9 years has been observed, suggesting a possible programming effect of foetal vitamin D status on child BP ( 14 ). Moreover, the inverse association between maternal s-25OHD in pregnancy and offspring BP at age 20 years was

Open access

Kaiyu Pan, Chengyue Zhang, Xiaocong Yao and Zhongxin Zhu


Ensuring adequate calcium (Ca) intake during childhood and adolescence is critical to acquire good peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis during older age. As one of the primary strategies to build and maintain healthy bones, we aimed to determine whether dietary Ca intake has an influence on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents.


We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 10,092 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary Ca intake and total BMD were taken as independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate the association between them, we conducted weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings.


There was a significantly positive association between dietary Ca intake and total BMD. The strongest association was observed in 12–15 year old whites, 8–11 year old and 16–19 year old Mexican Americans, and 16–19 year old individuals from other race/ethnicity, in whom each quintile of Ca intake was increased. We also found that there were significant inflection points in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group, which means that their total BMD would decrease when the dietary Ca intake was more than 2.6–2.8 g/d.


This cross-sectional study indicated that a considerable proportion of children and adolescents aged 8–19 years would attain greater total BMD if they increased their dietary Ca intake. However, higher dietary Ca intake (more than 2.6–2.8 g/d) is associated with lower total BMD in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group.

Open access

Zi-Di Xu, Wei Zhang, Min Liu, Huan-Min Wang, Pei-Pei Hui, Xue-Jun Liang, Jie Yan, Yu-Jun Wu, Yan-Mei Sang, Cheng Zhu and Gui-Chen Ni

ineffective treatment of diazoxide were as follows: when a child was treated with the maximum dose of diazoxide (15 mg/kg·day) for 5 days, blood sugar levels cannot be maintained at more than 70 mg/dL after the child is fasted for 8–10 h, indicating that

Open access

Suma Uday, Ardita Kongjonaj, Magda Aguiar, Ted Tulchinsky and Wolfgang Högler

commencement and duration of supplementation; presence of a recommended number of child health surveillance visits, professionals providing care and prescribing vitamin D supplements; provision of financial family support and child care benefits by

Open access

Jing Wang, Leishen Wang, Huikun Liu, Shuang Zhang, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Zhang, Nan Li, Wei Li, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou and Gang Hu

≥7.8 mmol/L and <11.1 mmol/L), they would be diagnosed as GDM ( 15 ). From 1999, all pregnant women living in the six urban districts of Tianjin have been screened for GDM ( 16 ). Study population We conducted a large study in 578 GDM mother–child

Open access

Chunyun Fu, Shiyu Luo, Yingfeng Li, Qifei Li, Xuehua Hu, Mengting Li, Yue Zhang, Jiasun Su, Xuyun Hu, Yun Chen, Jin Wang, Bobo Xie, Jingsi Luo, Xin Fan, Shaoke Chen and Yiping Shen

Ethics Committee of Guangxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the patients. Statistical analysis The data were analyzed using R software. Qualitative variables were compared using the Fisher test

Open access

Caroline Culen, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering and Gabriele Haeusler

are challenged with many endocrine, genetic, cardiovascular, developmental, reproductive and psychosocial issues. Medical care of girls with TS in child-centered healthcare systems is therefore highly specialized ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). Reviews of

Open access

Andrew R Dismukes, Vanessa J Meyer, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Katherine P Theall, Kyle C Esteves and Stacy S Drury

diurnal variables. This study was approved by the Tulane Institutional Review Board. Measures Caregivers provided information during an interview with trained research assistants about multiple levels of the child’s life and social ecology

Open access

Nicola Tufton, Lucy Shapiro, Anju Sahdev, Ajith V Kumar, Lee Martin, William M Drake, Scott A Akker and Helen L Storr

child with an SDHB mutation developing disease during childhood is very low ( 20 ), but if tumours arise they are potentially more aggressive than adult-onset lesions ( 3 ), although the reason for this is unknown. It is important to establish an

Open access

Farzaneh Rohani, Mohammad Reza Alai, Sedighe Moradi and Davoud Amirkashani

Pyle’s radiographic atlas ( 10 ). PAH was calculated by Bayley–Pinneau method ( 11 ). The Bayley–Pinneau method uses a series of tables that provide the child’s predicted percentage of adult height. TH in boys is calculated by parental heights using