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M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta and A P C Takano

uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum during diastole. However, the long-term effects of T3 may result in cardiac hypertrophy as a consequence of dysfunction, also classified as pathological hypertrophy, which leads to cardiac remodeling and heart failure

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Frans H H Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein and John M Hamlyn

intracellular signaling pathways involved in cardiac and arterial function and remodeling ( 67 , 68 ). CNS actions appear to play an important role as well. Several groups have shown that in rats chronic s.c. or i.v. infusion of ouabain causes a gradual, dose

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Susanna Cirera, Sophia G Moesgaard, Nora E Zois, Nathja Ravn, Jens P Goetze, Signe E Cremer, Tom Teerlink, Páll S Leifsson, Jesper L Honge, J Michael Hasenkam and Lisbeth H Olsen

extensive cardiac remodeling. Future studies including more pigs developing sMR over a longer period of time are needed to clarify this point. Hereby, we also investigated the expression profile of relevant microRNAs primarily associated with cardiac

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Madalena von Hafe, João Sergio Neves, Catarina Vale, Marta Borges-Canha and Adelino Leite-Moreira

expression is associated with apoptosis in the infarction border zone, cardiac dilatation and pathological remodeling ( 32 ). Given that p53 can regulate the JNK pathway through a positive feedback loop, THs might reduce JNK levels through a p53-dependent

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Peter D Mark, Mikkel Andreassen, Claus L Petersen, Andreas Kjaer and Jens Faber

endogenous SH (4, 5, 6) . We have previously evaluated cardiac performance before and after radioactive iodine treatment of SH by means of the impedance cardiography technique, aiming at normalization of serum TSH levels, and found a reduction in both HR and

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Tsuneo Ogawa and Adolfo J de Bold

hypertension and renal failure. Several findings suggest that ET1 produced locally in the heart may have hypertrophic and fibrotic effects, thus contributing to cardiac remodelling (181, 182, 183) . Conclusion The heart as an endocrine organ owes its

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Satoshi Higuchi, Hideki Ota, Takuya Ueda, Yuta Tezuka, Kei Omata, Yoshikiyo Ono, Ryo Morimoto, Masataka Kudo, Fumitoshi Satoh and Kei Takase

( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). The excess catecholamines and their metabolites have direct toxic as well as receptor-mediated effects on myocardial tissue ( 7 , 8 ). Progressive cardiac injury leads to cardiac remodeling and decreased cardiac function

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Akinori Sairaku, Yukiko Nakano, Yuko Uchimura, Takehito Tokuyama, Hiroshi Kawazoe, Yoshikazu Watanabe, Hiroya Matsumura and Yasuki Kihara

patients in our series was so small, which was hardly associated with the clinical decision-making. Nevertheless, our findings at least suggest that thyroid underactivity itself may contribute to a cardiac substrate favoring heart failure to a lesser extent

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Hugo R Ramos, Andreas L Birkenfeld and Adolfo J de Bold

obesity promotes hypertension partly through reduced vascular and renal NP responses as well as through impaired NP-mediated RAAS inhibition. Second, cNP also have beneficial actions on cardiac remodelling in essential hypertension, reducing left

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Richard P Steeds, Vandana Sagar, Shishir Shetty, Tessa Oelofse, Harjot Singh, Raheel Ahmad, Elizabeth Bradley, Rachel Moore, Suzanne Vickrage, Stacey Smith, Ivan Yim, Yasir S Elhassan, Hema Venkataraman, John Ayuk, Stephen Rooney and Tahir Shah

fibrosis and calcification, occurs in response to valvular injury ( 4 ). In diseased valves, VICs become activated to regulate repair and valve remodelling ( 5 ). Figure 1 Schematic diagram illustrating the valve layers. There are five