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Irvin M Modlin Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Harry Aslanian Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Lisa Bodei Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA
Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Ignat Drozdov Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Mark Kidd Wren Laboratories, Yale University School of Medicine, 35 NE Industrial Road, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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they comprise a heterogeneous group of cancers. Thus, tumor types range from histamine-secreting gastric ‘carcinoids’ to a mélange of pancreatic lesions (secreting glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, or vasoactive polypeptide – colloquially known as islet

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Richard P Steeds Department of Cardiology, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Vandana Sagar Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Shishir Shetty Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Tessa Oelofse Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Harjot Singh Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Raheel Ahmad Department of Cardiology, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Elizabeth Bradley Therapy Services (Dietetics), University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Rachel Moore Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Suzanne Vickrage Birmingham Neuroendocrine Tumour Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Stacey Smith Birmingham Neuroendocrine Tumour Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Ivan Yim Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Yasir S Elhassan Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Hema Venkataraman Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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John Ayuk Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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Stephen Rooney Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Tahir Shah Birmingham Neuroendocrine Tumour Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, University Hospitals Birmingham (Queen Elizabeth), NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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carcinoid syndrome (CS), consisting of facial flushing, diarrhoea and occasionally bronchospasm ( 1 ). Primary NETs within the ovaries are uncommon but can also cause CS and CHD by direct release of bioactive amines into the inferior vena cava or renal vein

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Myrtille Fouché Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Yves Bouffard Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Mary-Charlotte Le Goff Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Johanne Prothet Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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François Malavieille Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Pierre Sagnard Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Françoise Christin Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Davy Hayi-Slayman Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Arnaud Pasquer Department of Visceral Surgery, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Gilles Poncet Department of Visceral Surgery, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Thomas Walter Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Oncology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Thomas Rimmelé Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
EA 7426 Hospices Civils de Lyon-University Claude Bernard Lyon 1-Biomérieux ‘Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosuppression’ Pi3, Lyon, France

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Introduction Small-bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SB-NETs) are rare secreting neoplasms. Hormones (serotonin, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins and chromogranin-A) released into the systemic circulation can lead to a carcinoid syndrome (CS

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Erik Rösner Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

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Daniel Kaemmerer Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany

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Elisa Neubauer Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

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Jörg Sänger Laboratory of Pathology and Cytology Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany

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Amelie Lupp Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

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most often found in the gastrointestinal tract or the lung. Bronchopulmonary NEN (BP-NEN) are classified into low-grade, well-differentiated typical carcinoids (TC), intermediate-grade atypical carcinoids (AC) and high-grade, poorly differentiated

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Matteo Scopel Medical Clinic III, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Eugenio De Carlo Medical Clinic III, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Francesca Bergamo Unit of Medical Oncology 1, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Sabina Murgioni Unit of Medical Oncology 1, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Riccardo Carandina Radiodiagnostic Unit, University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Anna Rita Cervino Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Marta Burei Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Federica Vianello Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Vittorina Zagonel Unit of Medical Oncology 1, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy

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Matteo Fassan Surgical Pathology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Roberto Vettor Medical Clinic III, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy

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, appendix 5 11 1 4  Multiple sites 1 2 1 4  Unknown 11 23 Grading <0.001  Atypical carcinoid 3 6 4 16  Typical carcinoid 1 2 3 12  G1 8 17 9 36  G

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Samira M Sadowski Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Emanuel Christ Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

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Benoit Bédat Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Attila Kollár Department of Medical Oncology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Wolfram Karenovics Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Aurel Perren Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Frédéric Triponez Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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on behalf of the SwissNET registry
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Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs (LNET) represent approximately 30% of all NET ( 1 , 2 ) and account for 1–2% of all lung tumors. Lung NETs are classified into typical carcinoid (TC, low-grade tumors) and atypical carcinoid (AC

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Tiina Vesterinen HUSLAB, Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Teijo Kuopio Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä and Department of Pathology, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Maarit Ahtiainen Department of Education and Research, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Aija Knuuttila Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Heart and Lung Center, and Cancer Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Harri Mustonen Department of Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Kaisa Salmenkivi HUSLAB, Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Johanna Arola HUSLAB, Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Caj Haglund Department of Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Translational Cancer Medicine Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Introduction Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors are low- and intermediate-grade neoplasms that are subdivided into typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) based on the mitotic count and presence of necrosis ( 1 ). PCs belong to

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K G Samsom Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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L M van Veenendaal Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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G D Valk Department of Endocrine Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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M R Vriens Department of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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M E T Tesselaar Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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J G van den Berg Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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with metastatic small-intestinal NETs (SI-NETs), the carcinoid syndrome is common, which is characterised by diarrhoea, episodic flushing, bronchospasm and often carcinoid heart disease leading to right valvular dysfunction ( 4 ). Patients with non

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Kjell Oberg Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Eric Krenning Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Anders Sundin Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Lisa Bodei Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA

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Mark Kidd Wren Laboratories, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Margot Tesselaar Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Valentina Ambrosini University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Richard P Baum Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany

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Matthew Kulke Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Marianne Pavel Charite Hospital, Berlin, Germany

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Jaroslaw Cwikla University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland

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Ignat Drozdov Wren Laboratories, Branford, Connecticut, USA

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Massimo Falconi Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

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Nicola Fazio IEO (European Institute of Oncology), Milan, Italy

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Andrea Frilling Imperial College London, London, UK

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Robert Jensen National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Klaus Koopmans Martini Ziekenhuis, Groningen, Netherlands

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Tiny Korse Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Dik Kwekkeboom Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Helmut Maecke University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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Giovanni Paganelli Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, Italy

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Ramon Salazar Instituto Catala d’Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain

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Stefano Severi Instituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, Italy

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Jonathan Strosberg H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA

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Vikas Prasad Charite Hospital, Berlin, Germany

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Aldo Scarpa University of Verona, Verona, Italy

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Ashley Grossman Univeristy of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Annemeik Walenkamp University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Mauro Cives H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA

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Irene Virgolini Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

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Andreas Kjaer Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Irvin M Modlin Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

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IMPK mutation in a single small bowel carcinoid family ( 81 ) remains to be defined. In addition, the clinical usefulness of chemical-based DNA modifications e.g., methylation, requires elucidation. Alternatives to DNA-based molecular strategies

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Merete Gedde-Dahl
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Espen Thiis-Evensen
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Andreas Myklebust Tjølsen Section of Gastroenterology, University of Oslo School of Medicine, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4953, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway

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Kjerstin Skrede Mordal
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Morten Vatn
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Deidi S Bergestuen
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with endocrine functions (1) . Small intestinal NETs often produce vasoactive substances that may result in the carcinoid syndrome, symptoms of which include flushing, diarrhea, carcinoid heart disease, and bronchospasm. The syndrome is almost

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