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Martine Cohen-Solal, Thomas Funck-Brentano and Pablo Ureña Torres

(ROD) which was previously based on bone biopsies. Indeed, several features of bone strength which are also linked to mineral metabolism are currently included, such as bone structure, mineralization and level of bone remodeling that contribute to the

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Petar Milovanovic and Björn Busse

. Osteocyte death The lifetime of osteocytes is variable, but unlike other bone cells, osteocytes are capable of exceptional longevity; if a bone region remains unaffected by remodeling long enough, osteocytes can even live for several decades ( 35 ). Since

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

osteoclasts needs to be balanced. In T2DM, osteoblast function is disturbed and osteoclast activity is altered leading to impaired bone remodeling. However, the literature on osteoclasts is controversial. Serum levels of the bone resorption marker collagen

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Stephen A Martin, Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Dawn A Olson, Adam J Branscum, Donald B Jump, Charles K Marik, Jonathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

, primarily due to negative remodeling balance, where the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of formation ( 6 ). The mechanism(s) mediating premature cancellous bone loss in mice have not been extensively investigated, but our previous work suggests

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Kaisa K Ivaska, Maikki K Heliövaara, Pertti Ebeling, Marco Bucci, Ville Huovinen, H Kalervo Väänänen, Pirjo Nuutila and Heikki A Koistinen

employed the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (29) to study whether insulin affects markers of bone remodeling, particularly OC, in humans. A few studies have applied this technique to assess acute insulin-driven changes in bone metabolism (30

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Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras

microarchitecture and remodeling in glucocorticoid-induced and postmenopausal osteoporosis . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2001 16 97 – 103 . ( ) 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.1.97 43 Makras P Alexandraki KI

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Elena Valassi, Natalia García-Giralt, Jorge Malouf, Iris Crespo, Jaume Llauger, Adolfo Díez-Pérez and Susan M Webb

excess on bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis ( 1 ). ACRO patients show increased bone turnover and deterioration of both biomechanical competence and microarchitecture at the trabecular compartment ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). Of note, the latter has been

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Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

controls ( Tables 1 and 2 ). This was accompanied by decreased bone formation, indicated by decreased levels of osteocalcin, as well as a decrease in the bone resorption marker CTX in both cohorts, indicating reduced bone remodeling in GC-treated patients

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Ulla Schmidt, Birte Nygaard, Ebbe Winther Jensen, Jan Kvetny, Anne Jarløv and Jens Faber

). 20 Akalin A Colak O Alatas O Efe B . Bone remodelling markers and serum cytokines in patients with hyperthyroidism . Clinical Endocrinology 2002 57 125 – 129 . ( doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2002.01578.x ). 21 Faber J Galløe AM

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M Ahmid, C G Perry, S F Ahmed and M G Shaikh

Ranke MB. Cortical bone density is normal in prepubertal children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, but initially decreases during GH replacement due to early bone remodeling . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2003 88 5266