complications, the increased risk for fragility fractures has recently been recognized as an important complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). While type 1 diabetics have low bone mineral density and a six- to
Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner
Kaisa K Ivaska, Maikki K Heliövaara, Pertti Ebeling, Marco Bucci, Ville Huovinen, H Kalervo Väänänen, Pirjo Nuutila and Heikki A Koistinen
Introduction Bone is increasingly recognized as an effector in energy metabolism via its interactions with other tissues (1, 2) . The role of bone-derived osteocalcin (OC) as a novel endocrine regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism was
Petar Milovanovic and Björn Busse
Introduction From a medical materials science viewpoint, bone is a remarkably hierarchically organized nanostructured material with a peculiar organization of mineral and organic phases ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Bone is subject to various mechanical
Maryam Iravani, Marie K Lagerquist, Elham Karimian, Andrei S Chagin, Claes Ohlsson and Lars Sävendahl
system ( 4 ). With regard to connective tissues, the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and GPER1 has previously been demonstrated in human bone and growth plate cartilage ( 8 , 9 ) as well as in rat spinal and tibial growth plate chondrocytes ( 10 ). Moreover
Agnès Linglart, Martin Biosse-Duplan, Karine Briot, Catherine Chaussain, Laure Esterle, Séverine Guillaume-Czitrom, Peter Kamenicky, Jerome Nevoux, Dominique Prié, Anya Rothenbuhler, Philippe Wicart and Pol Harvengt
walking, waddling gait, leg bowing, enlarged cartilages, bone pain, craniostenosis, spontaneous dental abscesses, and growth failure. If undiagnosed during childhood, hypophosphatemia is suspected when patients present with bone and/or joint pain
Ranganathan R Rao, Harpal S Randeva, Sailesh Sankaranarayanan, Murthy Narashima, Matthias Möhlig, Hisham Mehanna and Martin O Weickert
effects of treatment with vitamin D in patients with pHPT are sparse. However, in the general population, beneficial effects of vitamin D replacement on bone mass and risk of fractures have been reported (6) , as well as various additional factors that
E Vignali, F Cetani, S Chiavistelli, A Meola, F Saponaro, R Centoni, L Cianferotti and C Marcocci
of SHPT, should be first to be excluded in the diagnostic workout of NPHPT. Other causes of SHPT, such renal failure, hypercalciuria, gastrointestinal diseases associated with malabsorption and other metabolic bone diseases that could affect PTH
R Perchard, L Magee, A Whatmore, F Ivison, P Murray, A Stevens, M Z Mughal, S Ehtisham, J Campbell, S Ainsworth, M Marshall, M Bone, I Doughty and P E Clayton
Higher 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c.
(1) To assess the baseline 25(OH)D3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (2) To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c.
Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OH)D3 level <50 nmol/L were treated with a one-off cholecalciferol dose of 100,000 (2–10 years) or 160,000 (>10 years) units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded.
Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OH)D3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OH)D3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01). In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328) or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248) before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level.
We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras
disease ( 4 ). Most frequently affected organs include the bones, lungs, pituitary gland and skin while the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, intestine and central nervous system are less frequently involved. Clinical manifestations are various according to the
Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland
(2) . Historically, bone metastases from NETs were considered to be extremely rare (3, 4) . As few as 50 case reports were identified in a recently published literature review on skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors (5) . In a series of 145